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The decision was made in July, but has only come to light after reports in the Greek media during the past week. However, Goalbet — one of 24 operators granted a opap sports betting license in that was later revoked — argued that OPAP had never been asked to meet the conditions necessary for a Greek online sports betting license, and their license was therefore void. The loss of the licence, whether temporary or permanent, is not expected to have a major impact on the operator's sports betting revenue, which remains dominated by OPAP's retail offering. For the six months to 30 Junesports betting revenue was down 5. An OPAP spokesperson emphasised that the decision affected only a very small part of the company's revenue. The spokesperson added that the operator's main online business was run through Stoiximan, the igaming business in which OPAP holds a majority stake.

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Lac dye and cochineal extract contain laccaic acids and carminic acid as the main pigments, respectively. Both laccaic acids and carminic acid are anthraquinone derivatives. We attempted to prepare ammonia-treated lac dye and to identify the structures of the main pigment components. Ammonia-treated lac dye showed acid stability similar to that of 4-aminocarminic acid. These results indicated that ammonia-treatment of lac dye results in the generation of 4-aminolaccaic acids.

Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels.

Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U. As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern Evelyn , Graunt It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts.

In the U. This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale. Salicylic acids. Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses.

The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here.

Formic acid. Dichloroacetic acid. Acrylic acid. Trichloroacetic acid. Benzoic acid. Phosphoric acid. Cacodylic acid. Selenious acid. Mefenamic Acid. Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Stearic Acid. A chemical laboratory information profile CLIP is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts. Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete admixtures are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids , carboxylic acids , and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

Obeticholic Acid. Objective: To review the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of obeticholic acid OCA and determine its clinical role relative to other agents in the treatment of patients with primary biliary cholangitis PBC.

Study end points utilized biochemical markers alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and bilirubin. The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…. Acid rain. Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time.

Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. Methylmalonic acid blood test. The health care Editorial team. Uric acid - urine. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid Uric acid test image.

Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of Citric acid urine test. Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test No special preparation is necessary for this test.

But the results Ask your Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century Bravo et al. A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few….

Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes diet, weight-loss, exercise to reduce the amount Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications Acid Lipase Disease. Fatty acid analogs. In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

Zoledronic Acid Injection. Zoledronic acid Reclast is also used to treat osteoporosis in men, and to prevent or treat osteoporosis Acid soldering flux poisoning. Acid soldering flux is a chemical used to clean and protect the area where two pieces of metal are The harmful substances in soldering fluxes are called hydrocarbons. They include: Ammonium chloride Rosin Hydrochloric acid Zinc chloride. Carbolic acid poisoning.

Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning Tests that Plant fatty acid hydroxylases. This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described.

Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent. Toxicology of Perfluorodecanoic Acid. Statement of Problem: 1. Toxic doses of PFDA result in reduction of feed intake, body weight, serum PFDA in a dose Objectives: 1.

What Is Acid Rain? Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity , primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids , is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.

Acid Rain Study Guide. Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: 1 the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain such as acid….

The Acid Rain Reader. A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC OH [subscript 2]COOH….

Crystallization of uric acid. Crystals of uric acid have been grown in tetra methoxy silane and silica gel medium. Small winged, transparent, platy crystals of uric acid of about 0. Cleavage of nucleic acids. The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner.

The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. Nucleic acid detection assays. Amino acid analysis. The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented.

The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH 5. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature. Acidic Ionic Liquids. Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years.

The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity , thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections.

Sulfuric Acid on Europa. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer. Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa the upper left side of the image.

This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid , mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide.

Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed.

In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

Nucleic acid detection kits. Hall, Jeff G. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce. Microorganisms for producing organic acids. Organic acid -producing microorganisms and methods of using same.

The organic acid -producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid , acrylic acid , propionic acid , lactic acid , and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid , lactate, and others.

Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid , lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided. Acid -Base Homeostasis. Acid -base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function.

The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid -base balance.

Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid -base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid -base transport in the kidneys.

Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of , the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community.

In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

The U. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic.

Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted Young, The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

Recovery of organic acids. A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

Unsaturated amino acids. Microbiological properties of some halogenated olefinic amino acids. This paper reports the results obtained when a series of unsaturated halogen-containing amino acids was examined. A wide variety of amino acids was capable of partially or completely preventing the toxicity of low levels of these compounds.

At higher levels, relatively few amino acids primarily valine, leucine, and glutamic acid were effective. Nucleic Acid Immunity. Organisms throughout biology need to maintain the integrity of their genome. From bacteria to vertebrates, life has established sophisticated mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its function and replication. Tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids from viruses or phages in check.

With inherited receptors and acquired sequence information, nucleic acid immunity comprises innate and adaptive components. Effector functions include diverse nuclease systems, intrinsic activities to directly restrict the function of foreign nucleic acids e. These effects act in concert to restrict viral replication and to eliminate virus-infected cells.

The principles of nucleic acid immunity are highly relevant for human disease. Besides its essential contribution to antiviral defense and restriction of endogenous retroelements, dysregulation of nucleic acid immunity can also lead to erroneous detection and response to self nucleic acids then causing sterile inflammation and autoimmunity. Even mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which are not established in vertebrates are relevant for human disease when they are present in pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, or helminths or in pathogen-transmitting organisms such as insects.

This review aims to provide an overview of the diverse mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which mostly have been looked at separately in the past and to integrate them under the framework nucleic acid immunity as a basic principle of life, the understanding of which has great potential to. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids.

The Perfluoroalkyl acids PFAAs area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone in length and a acidic functional moiety Carboxylate or sulfonate. These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr Analysis of Organic Acids. Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids , determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol.

A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. History of fatty acids. Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from From it auspicious beginnings, the Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle. Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry.

Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…. Mutant fatty acid desaturase. The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity.

The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method.

Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products. The perfluoroalkyl acids PFAAs are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone in length and an acidic functional moiety carboxylate or sulfonate. These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties Salicylic Acid Topical.

If you experience any of Call your doctor if you have any unusual Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids. Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids ILs was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate III systems.

In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: 1 liquid coordination complexes LCCs , still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and 2 ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids , also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis. This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues and , adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning.

Fatty Acids of Myxococcus xanthus. Fatty acids were extracted from saponified vegetative cells and myxospores of Myxococcus xanthus and examined as the methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. The acids consisted mainly of C14 to C17 species. Branched acids predominated, and iso-pentadecanoic acid constituted half or more of the mixture.

Among the unsaturated acids were two diunsaturated ones, an n-hexadecadienoic acid and an iso-heptadecadienoic acid. No significant differences between the fatty acid compositions of the vegetative cells and myxospores could be detected. The fatty acid composition of M. It is suggested that a fatty acid pattern consisting of a large proportion of iso-branched C15 and C17 acids and a substantial amount of an n acid is characteristic of myxobacteria.

Galileo, launched in , has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December Safety of folic acid. Abstract There is a large body of literature demonstrating the efficacy of maternal folic acid intake in preventing birth defects, as well as investigations into potential adverse consequences of consuming folic acid above the upper intake level UL.

Recently, two authoritative bodies convened expert panels to assess risks from high intakes of folic acid : the U. Overall, the totality of the evidence examined by these panels, as well as studies published since the release of their reports, have not established risks for adverse consequences resulting from existing mandatory folic acid fortification programs that have been implemented in many countries.

Current folic acid fortification programs have been shown to support public health in populations, and the exposure levels are informed by and adherent to the precautionary principle. Additional research is needed to assess the health effects of folic acid supplement use when the current upper limit for folic acid is exceeded. Trans Fatty Acids. Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers.

One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels.

Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized. A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indolemethanesulfonic acid IMS , a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated.

IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections.

Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders. Your body can use this fuel right away, or it can store the energy Treatments may include special diets, medicines, and supplements. Nitric acid poisoning. Nitric acid Acute Exposure Valproic Acid and Pregnancy. I have been taking valproic acid Boric acid poisoning. For skin exposure, treatment may include: Surgical removal of burned skin debridement Transfer to a hospital that specializes in burn care Washing of the skin irrigation , possibly every Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical. When aminolevulinic acid is activated by light, it damages the cells of actinic keratosis lesions. Folic acid in diet. Folic acid dissolves in water. This means that it is regularly removed from Methylmalonic Acid Test.

Folic acid - test. Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid. Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth Hydrofluoric acid poisoning.

Amino Acids and Chirality. Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs.

In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies chondrite class. In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life. Hydrochloric acid poisoning.

The person Facts about Folic Acid. Folic Acid Quiz. Amino acid ionic liquids. The preparation of ionic liquids derived from amino acids , and their properties, are outlined. Since amino acids have both a carboxylic acid residue and an amino group in a single molecule, they can be used as either anions or cations.

These groups are also useful in their ability to introduce functional group s. Twenty different natural amino acids were used as anions, to couple with the 1-ethylmethylimidazolium cation. The salts obtained were all liquid at room temperature. The properties of the resulting ionic liquids AAILs depend on the side groups of the amino acids involved.

Viscosity is reduced and the decomposition temperature of imidazolium-type salts is improved by using the tetrabutylphosphonium cation. The chirality of AAILs was maintained even upon heating to degrees C after acetylation of the free amino group. The amino group was also modified to introduce a strong acid group so as to form hydrophobic and chiral ionic liquids. Unique phase behavior of the resulting hydrophobic ionic liquids and water mixture is found; the mixture is clearly phase separated at room temperature, but the solubility of water in this IL increases upon cooling, to give a homogeneous solution.

This phase change is reversible, and separation occurs again by raising the temperature a few degrees. Some likely applications are proposed for these amino acid derived ionic liquids. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers. A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered.

Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction e. There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification.

In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability.

Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies. Managing bile acid diarrhoea. Bowel symptoms including diarrhoea can be produced when excess bile acids BA are present in the colon. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the 75Se-homocholic acid taurine SeHCAT test, is not available in many countries and is not fully utilized in others.

Reduced SeHCAT retention establishes that this is a complication of many other gastrointestinal diseases. Recent work suggests that the condition previously called idiopathic bile acid malabsorption BAM is not in fact due to a defect in absorption, but results from an overproduction of BA because of defective feedback inhibition of hepatic bile acid synthesis, a function of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 FGF The approach to treatment currently depends on binding excess BA, to reduce their secretory actions, using colestyramine, colestipol and, most recently, colesevelam.

Colesevelam has a number of potential advantages that merit further investigation in trials directed at patients with bile acid diarrhoea. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the 75 Se-homocholic acid taurine SeHCAT test, is not available in many countries and is not fully utilized in others.

Anharmonicity in Amino Acids. The underlying mechanisms governing these transitions have been subject of debate. In the present work it is reported a survey on the temperature dependence of structural, vibrational and thermodynamical properties of a nearly anhydrous amino acid orthorhombic polymorph of the amino acids L-cysteine and L-proline at a hydration level of 3.

The temperature dependence of X-Ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and specific heat were considered. The data were analyzed considering amino acid -amino acid , amino acid -water, and water-water phonon-phonon interactions, and molecular rotors activation.

Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography. The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids.

However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.

Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms.

Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. Acidification and Acid Rain. Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries Ducros, ; Smith, ; Camuffo, ; Brimblecombe, Only in the mids did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources Gorham, The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition.

As systems acidify, their biotic community changes. Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid e. Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution Figure 1 has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems.

Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity , acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that. Discovery of essential fatty acids. Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet.

They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid , the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid , is also an essential fatty acid.

The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid? The infrared vibrational spectra of amorphous solid water thin films doped with HF at 40 K reveal a strong continuous absorbance in the cm -1 range.

This so-called Zundel continuum is the spectroscopic hallmark for aqueous protons. The extensive ionic dissociation of HF at such low temperature suggests that the reaction enthalpy remains negative down to 40 K. These observations support the interpretation that dilute HF aqueous solutions behave as weak acids largely due to the large positive reaction entropy resulting from the structure making character of the hydrated fluoride ion.

Acetic acid , as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid.

Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. Furthermore, R. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid , stearic acid , oleic acid , linoleic acid and linolenic acid , including The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R.

Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. Optical high acidity sensor. An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.

The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.

Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

A Demonstration of Acid Rain. A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid -base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

An acetone precipitate from an extract of spinach leaves catalysed the hydroxylation of trans- cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid. The enzyme was Tetrahydrofolic acid and a reduced pyridine nucleotide coenzyme were necessary for maximum activity. Aminopterin was a potent inhibitor of the hydroxylating. An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics.

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. Omega-3 fatty acids : new insights into the pharmacology and biology of docosahexaenoic acid , docosapentaenoic acid , and eicosapentaenoic acid.

Fish oil contains a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids , which are predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid EPA , docosapentaenoic acid , and docosahexaenoic acid DHA. Each of these omega-3 fatty acids has distinct biological effects that may have variable clinical effects.

In addition, plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids are affected not only by dietary intake, but also by the polymorphisms of coding genes fatty acid desaturase for the desaturase enzymes that convert short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The clinical significance of this new understanding regarding the complexity of omega-3 fatty acid biology is the purpose of this review. FADS polymorphisms that result in either lower levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or higher levels of long-chain omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids , such as arachidonic acid , are associated with dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular risk factors.

Overall, these results emphasize that blood concentrations of individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids , which reflect both dietary intake and metabolic influences, may have independent, but also complementary- biological effects and reinforce the need to potentially provide a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids to maximize cardiovascular risk reduction. A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described.

Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid -base titration. Students obtain the…. Nanotube titanic acid NTA has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character.

In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. The interaction between acid -treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid -treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid -treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid -treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction.

In addition, acid -treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite. Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids , along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives.

The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison.

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters. A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Acid Rain: Science Projects. Presented is a science activity designed to help students monitor the pH of rainfall. Materials, procedures and follow-up activities are listed. A list of domestic and foreign sources of information is provided. Topics which relate to acid precipitation are outlined. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid. The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid DCA , a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple up to 14 d oral doses.

Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin Plant fatty acid hydroxylase. The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Chapter 5: Acid deposition. This publication provides information about the atmospheric conditions in and near the national forest in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark and St. Francis in Arkansas. This report includes information about particulate matter, visibility, ozone concentrations, and acid deposition in the Ozark Acid Rain Classroom Projects. Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation.

Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. The Acid Rain Debate. Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors.

The Acid Rain Game. Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game designed for two players , a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers.

Information for the computer program is available from the author. J Manage Inf Syst 16 2 — Karahanna E, Straub DW, Chervany NL Information technology adoption across time: a cross-sectional comparison of pre-adoption and post-adoption beliefs. MIS Q 23 2 — Kempf DS Attitude formation from product trial: distinct roles of cognition and affect for hedonic and functional products.

Psychol Market 16 1 — Kempf DS, Smith RE Consumer processing of product trial and the influence of prior advertising: a structural modeling approach. J Mark Res 35 3 — Kim S, Garrison G Investigating mobile wireless technology adoption: an extension of the technology acceptance model.

Inf Syst Front 11 3 — Decis Support Syst 43 1 — In: Olson JC ed Advances in consumer research. Association for Consumer Research, Ann Arbor, pp — A critical review of the technology acceptance model. Inf Manage 40 3 — MIS Q 31 4 — Wireless communications, networking and mobile computing, McGraw-Hill Companies, Berkeley.

Lexington Books, Lexington, pp — Inf Manage 38 4 — Nilakanta S, Scamell RW The effect of information sources and communication channels on the diffusion of innovation in a data base development environment. Manage Sci 36 1 — Nunnally JC Psychometric theory, 2nd edn.

McGraw Hill, New York. Oliver RL A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. J Mark Res 17 4 — Rivard S, Huff S Factors of success for end user computing. Commun ACM 31 5 — Rogers EM Diffusion of innovations, 4th edn. Free Press, New York.

J Market 46 1 — J Mark Res 20 3 — Smith RE, Swinyard WR Cognitive response to advertising and trial: belief strength, belief confidence and product curiosity. J Advert 17 3 :3— Starbuck W, Webster J When is play productive? Account Manage Inf Technol 1 1 — Swanson EB Information system implementation: bridging the gap between design and utilization. Irwin, Homewood. J Retail 77 2 — Thaler R Mental accounting and consumer choice. Market Sci 4 3 — Int J Hum Comput Stud 64 9 — J Mark Res 25 2 — Van der Heijden H User acceptance of hedonic information systems.

MIS Q 28 4 — Venkatesh V Where to go from here? Thoughts on future directions for research on individual-level technology adoption with a focus on decision making. Dec Sci 37 4 — MIS Q 27 3 — Wright AA, Lynch JG Jr Communication effects of advertising versus direct experience when both search and experience attributes are present. J Consum Res 21 4 — Inf Manage 42 5 — Xin M, Levina N Software-as-a-service model: elaborating client-side adoption factors.

In: 29th international conference on information systems. Paris, France. Zmud RW The effectiveness of external information channels in facilitating innovation within software development groups. MIS Q 7 2 — Download references. Correspondence to Kanliang Wang. CUI1: My intentions are to continue using mobile newspaper than use any alternative means printed and online newspaper or magazine. Reprints and Permissions. Wang, T. User adoption and purchasing intention after free trial: an empirical study of mobile newspapers.

Inf Syst E-Bus Manage 11, — Download citation. Received : 30 September Revised : 21 June Accepted : 28 July Published : 08 August Issue Date : June

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