This study argued that multiple gas reduction flexibility should be assessed when considering effective greenhouse gas GHG mitigation strategies. Multigas reduction potential was measured in relation to long-term atmospheric temperature targets, and the effects on gas life as well as abatement timing uncertainty were considered in terms of cost and technological availability.
The model consisted of 5 nodules which considered issues related to energy, climate, land use, macroeconomics, and environmental impacts. The time horizon of the model was to An economic utility maximization technology was used to consider global trade balances. Results were presented for GHG emissions and concentrations in 2 simulation cases: 1 a no climate policy case NCP ; and 2 a transient temperature stabilization TTS case.
Economic incentives and public outreach programs are needed to offset the high transaction costs of GHG mitigation strategies. It was concluded that both short-term and long-term policies are required to reduce GHG in all sectors.
Multigas mitigation is needed to. Immunotoxicity, genotoxicity and epigenetic toxicity of nanomaterials: New strategies for toxicity testing? The unique properties of nanomaterials NMs are beneficial in numerous industrial and medical applications. However, they could also induce unintended effects. Thus, a proper strategy for toxicity testing is essential in human hazard and risk assessment.
Robust, standardized methods are of great importance in nanotoxicology, with comprehensive material characterization and uptake as an integral part of the testing strategy. Oxidative stress has been shown to be an underlying mechanism of possible toxicity of NMs, causing both immunotoxicity and genotoxicity.
Novel toxicity pathways, particularly epigenetic modification, should be assessed along with conventional toxicity testing methods. However, to initiate epigenetic toxicity screens for NM exposure, there is a need to better understand their adverse effects on the epigenome, to identify robust and reproducible causal links between exposure, epigenetic changes and adverse phenotypic endpoints, and to develop improved assays to monitor epigenetic toxicity.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved. Multiple models guide strategies for agricultural nutrient reductions. Although several potential pathways may achieve the target loads, our results show that any successful pathway will require large-scale implementation of multiple practices. Mechanisms of reduction of antitumor drug toxicity by liposome encapsulation. The antitumor drug Actinomycin D is effective against the growth of some human solid tumors but its use is limited by its extreme toxicity.
The development of a method of administering Act. D to reduce its systemic toxicity by incorporating the drug within liposomes reduced its toxicity but its tumoricidal activity was retained. Fumonisins are found in corn. Reducing their concentrations in corn-based foods is therefore desirable. Chemical analysis or in vitro bioassays of food extracts might not detect toxic fumonisin reaction pro Fumonisins are mycotoxins found in corn.
Chemical analysis or in vitro bioassays of food extracts might not detect toxic fumonisin reaction products that are unknown or unextractable from food matrices, thus potentially underestimating in vivo toxicity. The effectiveness of two common cooking methods, extrusion and nixtamalization alkaline cooking , to reduce the toxicity of fumonisin-contaminated corn grits extrusion and whole kernel corn nixtamalization was shown by means of rat feeding bioassays using fumonisin-specific kidney effects as indicators of potential toxicity.
The findings indicate that extrusion and nixtamalization reduce the potential toxicity of FB 1 -contaminated corn. Nanomaterials exemplify a new class of emerging technologies that have significant economic and social value, pose uncertain health and environmental risks, and are entering the marketplace at a rapid pace.
Effective regimes for regulating emerging technologies generate information about known or suspected hazards and draw on private sector expertise to guide managers' behavior toward risk reduction , even in the absence of clear evidence of harm. TURA is notable for its focus on chemicals use and hazard and its emphasis on strengthening firms' internal management systems. Absent definitive information about risk, a governance strategy that generates information and focuses management attention on reducing hazards is worth considering.
Strategies for regular segmented reductions on GPU. We present and evaluate an implementation technique for regular segmented reductions on GPUs. Existing techniques tend to be either consistent in performance but relatively inefficient in absolute terms, or optimised for specific workloads and thereby exhibiting bad performance for certain input We evaluate the technique on four microbenchmarks, two of which we also compare to implementations in the CUB library for GPU programming, as well as on two The economics of radwaste volume reduction strategies.
A recently concluded EPRI study has generated much of the information needed by utilities when they consider the purchase of volume reduction equipment. This paper presents some of the study's results on volume reduction economics.
The paper contains two types of results. The first is a detailed look at the economics of fourteen equipment options at a hypothetical reactor station. This analysis illustrates the major points of the project conclusions. Second, the effects of the major assumptions used in the hypothetical case are examined.
This analysis shows that the radwaste generation rate and the burial cost escalation rate are primary considerations when evaluating the benefit of each option. Plant species responses to oil degradation and toxicity reduction in Vegetated plots were established by planting different plant species — legumes and vegetable Abelmoschus, esculentus, Telfaria occidentalis and Vigna unguiculata and applied with sawdust and chromolaena leaves at different intensities of oil pollution.
Toxicity of the soil was evaluated using germination percentage, The implementation process has been oriented toward achieving the annual objectives and in accordance with the program of public priority measures for — Selective catalyst reduction light-off strategy.
An emissions control system includes a temperature determination module and an emissions control module. The temperature determination module determines a first temperature of a heater element of a diesel particulate filter DPF assembly in an exhaust system and determines a second temperature of a catalyst of the DPF assembly.
The emissions control module selectively activates the heater element, selectively initiates a predefined combustion process in an engine based upon the first temperature, and selectively starts a reductant injection process based upon the second temperature.
Transport represents the sector with the fastest growing greenhouse gas emissions around the world. The main global objective is to reduce energy usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. For this study it was analyzed the road transportation system from Brasov Metropolitan area. The study was made for the transportation route that connects Ghimbav city to the main surrounding objectives.
In this study ware considered four optimization measures: vehicle fleet renewal; building the detour belt for the city; road increasing the average travel speed; making bicycle lanes; and implementing an urban public transport system for Ghimbav. For each measure it was used a mathematical model to calculate the energy consumption and carbon emissions from the road transportation sector.
After all four measures was analyzed is calculated the general energy consumption and CO2 reduction if this are applied from year to Gender and poverty reduction strategy processes in Latin America. Since then, the elaboration and subsequent implementation of PRSs Poverty Reduction Strategies have been seen as a tool for the international donor community to guarantee that not only debt relief, but also aid in general would be spent well.
Greenhouse gas emission reduction options and strategies. The Action Plan was formulated to meet the Administration's commitment of returning US emissions of greenhouse gases to levels by the year The paper discusses what the energy industry and energy consumers will be requested to do in order to meet this commitment.
Several themes addressed in this paper include: 1 the largely voluntary nature of the actions identified in the Action Plan; 2 consideration of diverse opportunities to reduce emissions; 3 the outlook for US greenhouse gas emissions after ; and 4 actions involved for speeding the utilization of new, energy efficient technologies both domestically and abroad. The value of employing a diverse set of activities and the important role of technology improvements will be explored further in section 10 of this volume: ''Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Strategies.
Efficiency of radon reduction techniques and strategies. Radon is a lung carcinogen recognized by the World Health Organisation and it is present in dwellings. In France, the first actions to measure the exposition of the population were made in , and the first national recommendation was published in In parallel, information booklets on radon and possible actions to lower its concentration in house were made available to the public.
The aim of this study was to test the economic feasibility of different methods to reduce radon level in housing. The first step was to identify the cost and the radon reduction rate of different methods, all based on insulation or ventilation of the buildings.
Using the data of the Environmental Protection Agency EPA , we selected six measures and combined them to obtain a total of twenty potential solutions. We also used the 'duration' model of the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation committee BEIR VI to determine the probability of dying from a cancer associated to a fixed exposure to radon.
Knowing this information, it was possible to make cost-efficiency analysis on our data and thus keep six interesting methods. Combining these results with the value of human life of the human capital approach we could find what was the most interesting method to apply for a known level of radon and a specific duration of exposure in a house.
In given house, for each level of initial exposure, a cost benefit approach allowed to determine if one, or several techniques, or none, is worthwhile to apply. In favorable cases i. As we know the radon distribution in France, the second step was to see what would be the effects on this distribution if all inhabitants used the optimal approach against their radon exposure defined by our function.
Thus, overall costs and overall risks could be computed. However, in public health issues, the. Six steps to a successful dose- reduction strategy. The increased importance of demonstrating achievement of the ALARA principle has helped produce a proliferation of dose- reduction ideas.
Across a company there may be many dose- reduction items being pursued in a variety of areas. However, companies have a limited amount of resource and, therefore, to ensure funding is directed to those items which will produce the most benefit and that all areas apply a common policy, requires the presence of a dose- reduction strategy.
Six steps were identified in formulating the dose- reduction strategy for Rolls-Royce and Associates RRA : 1 collating the ideas; 2 quantitatively evaluating them on a common basis; 3 prioritizing the ideas in terms of cost benefit, 4 implementation of the highest priority items; 5 monitoring their success; 6 periodically reviewing the strategy.
Inherent in producing the dose- reduction strategy has been a comprehensive dose database and the RRA-developed dose management computer code DOMAIN, which allows prediction of dose rates and dose. The database enabled high task dose items to be identified, assisted in evaluating dose benefits, and monitored dose trends once items had been implemented.
The DOMAIN code was used both in quantifying some of the project dose benefits and its results, such as dose contours, used in some of the dose- reduction items themselves. In all, over fifty dose- reduction items were evaluated in the strategy process and the items which will give greatest benefit are being implemented.
The strategy has been successful in giving renewed impetus and direction to dose- reduction management. Climate change air toxic co- reduction in the context of macroeconomic modelling. This paper examines the health implications of global PM reduction accompanying greenhouse gas emissions reductions in the national economies of the global macroeconomy.
A human health effects module based on empirical data on GHG emissions, PM emissions, background PM concentrations, source apportionment and human health risk coefficients is used to estimate reductions in morbidity and mortality from PM exposures globally as co- reduction of GHG reductions. These results are compared against the "fuzzy bright line" that often underlies regulatory decisions for environmental toxics , and demonstrate that the risk reduction through PM reduction would usually be considered justified in traditional risk-based decisions for environmental toxics.
Consideration of co- reduction of PM within a climate policy framework harmonized with other environmental policies can therefore be an effective driver of climate policy. An error analysis comparing results of the current model against those of significantly more spatially resolved models at city and national scales indicates errors caused by the low spatial resolution of the global model used here may be on the order of a factor of 2. National Academy of Sciences, in , precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted.
It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal Development Options as Strategies for Conflict Reduction in This paper explores development options as effective strategies for conflict reduction in the Cross River National Park, Nigeria.
It also discusses the tensions that result from the different development and conservation priorities that confront such humaninhabited protected areas as the Cross River National Park. The success Integrated testing strategies for toxicity employing new and existing technologies. We have developed individual, integrated testing strategies ITS for predicting the toxicity of general chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, inhaled chemicals, and nanoparticles. These ITS are based on published schemes developed previously for the risk assessment of chemicals to fulfil the requirements of REACH, which have been updated to take account of the latest developments in advanced in chemico modelling and in vitro technologies.
The technologies are deployed in a step-wise manner, as a basis for decision-tree approaches, incorporating weight-of-evidence stages. In addition, the strategies are intelligent, in that they are based on the fundamental premise that there is no hazard in the absence of exposure - which is why pharmacokinetic modelling plays a key role in each ITS. The new technologies include the use of complex, three-dimensional human cell tissue culture systems with in vivo-like structural, physiological and biochemical features, as well as dosing conditions.
This is reflected in the ITS placing more emphasis on the use of volunteers at the whole organism testing stage, rather than on existing animal testing, which is the current situation. This article overviews the second phase of a two-phase study which examined experiences of health and social exclusion among mothers experiencing homelessness in Ontario, Canada.
A critical discourse analysis was employed to analyze the policy document, Realizing Our Potential: Ontario's Poverty Reduction Strategy , In nursing, analysis of policy is an emerging form of scholarship, one that draws attention to the macro levels influencing health and health promotion, such as the social determinants of health, and the policies that impact them. The clear neo-liberal underpinnings, within the strategy , with a focus on productivity and labor market participation leave little room for an understanding of poverty reduction from a human rights perspective.
Further, gender-neutrality rendered the poverty experienced by women, and mothers, invisible. Notably, there were a lack of deadlines, target dates, and thorough action and evaluation plans. Such absence troubles whether poverty reduction is truly a priority for the government, and society as a whole. The role of intestinal microbiota in development of irinotecan toxicity and in toxicity reduction through dietary fibres in rats.
CPT causes toxic side-effects in patients. CPT toxicity has been attributed to the activity of intestinal microbiota, however, intestinal microbiota may also have protective effects in CP! This study aimed to elucidate mechanisms through which microbiota and dietary fibres could modify host health. Animals were fed with a semi-purified diet or a semi-purified diet was supplemented with non-digestible carbohydrates isomalto-oligosaccharides, resistant starch, fructo-oligosaccharides, or inulin in 3 independent experiments.
Changes in intestinal microbiota, bacteria translocating to mesenteric lymphnodes, cecal GUD activity, and cecal SCFA production, and the intestinal concentration of CPT and its metabolites were analysed. Non-digestible carbohydrates significantly influenced feed intake, body weight and other indicators of animal health. The identification of translocating bacteria and their quantification in cecal microbiota indicated that overgrowth of the intestine by opportunistic pathogens was not a major contributor to CPT toxicity.
The reduction in CPT toxicity by non-digestible carbohydrates did not correlate to stimulation of specific bacterial taxa. However, cecal butyrate concentrations and feed intake were highly correlated. The protective role of intestinal butyrate production was substantiated by a positive correlation of the host expression of MCT1 monocarboxylate transporter 1 with body weight as well as a positive correlation of the abundance of bacterial butyryl-CoA gene with cecal butyrate concentrations.
These correlations support the. Reduction of petroleum hydrocarbons and toxicity in refinery wastewater by bioremediation. T-1 , and Bacillus sp. T'-1 , previously isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils. Similarly, the toxicity of the biodegraded petroleum waste decreased 3-fold after 30 days. This work shows the influence of bacteria on hydrocarbon degradation and associated toxicity , and its dependence on the specific microorganisms present.
The ability of these mixed cultures to degrade hydrocarbons and reduce toxicity makes them candidates for environmental restoration applications at other hydrocarbon-contaminated environments. The GSPS also stresses that existing health and education programs are essential to foster growth in the medium and long terms, but further efforts are needed.
The GSPS contains a macroeconomic framework that is consistent with the proposed objectives of poverty reduction. The growth and fiscal targets envisaged in the macroe The developments in —04 are rather reassuring. The resulting pattern, overall, is more favorable than what was foreseen by the PRSP development scenario. Particularly, the economy grew twice as rapidly as the projected rate, and the government continues to implement a public expenditure policy that is focused on social sectors and infrastructure development.
As a resu The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper discusses that the growth recorded over the last five years is essentially driven by the increase in foreign direct investment—but especially by the activities of the Port of Djibouti. The informal economy constitutes a major proportion of the economic activities of Djibouti a Voting strategy for artifact reduction in digital breast tomosynthesis. Artifacts are observed in digital breast tomosynthesis DBT reconstructions due to the small number of projections and the narrow angular range that are typically employed in tomosynthesis imaging.
In this work, we investigate the reconstruction artifacts that are caused by high-attenuation features in breast and develop several artifact reduction methods based on a 'voting strategy '. The voting strategy identifies the projection s that would introduce artifacts to a voxel and rejects the projection s when reconstructing the voxel.
Four approaches to the voting strategy were compared, including projection segmentation, maximum contribution deduction, one-step classification, and iterative classification. The projection segmentation method, based on segmentation of high-attenuation features from the projections, effectively reduces artifacts caused by metal and large calcifications that can be reliably detected and segmented from projections.
The other three methods are based on the observation that contributions from artifact-inducing projections have higher value than those from normal projections. These methods attempt to identify the projection s that would cause artifacts by comparing contributions from different projections. Among the three methods, the iterative classification method provides the best artifact reduction ; however, it can generate many false positive classifications that degrade the image quality.
The maximum contribution deduction method and one-step classification method both reduce artifacts well from small calcifications, although the performance of artifact reduction is slightly better with the one-step classification. The combination of one-step classification and projection segmentation removes artifacts from both large and small calcifications. Full Text Available Objective: To assess factors determining the reaction of individuals to the threats of overweight and obesity and to examine the interdependencies between weight-reducing strategies.
Methods: Cross-country survey covering 19 countries and 13, interviews. Data were analysed using a bivariate probit model that allows simultaneously analysing two weight-reducing strategies. Results: Results show that weight-reducing strategies chosen are not independent from each other. Findings also reveal that different strategies are chosen by different population segments. Women are more likely to change their dietary patterns and less likely to become physically active after surpassing a weight threshold.
In addition, the probability of a dietary change in case of overweight differs considerably between countries. The study also reveals that attitudes are an important factor for the strategy choice. Conclusions: It is vital for public health policies to understand determinants of citizens' engagement in weight reduction strategies once a certain threshold is reached. Thus, results can support the design of public health campaigns and programmes that aim to change community or national health behaviour trends taking into account, e.
Predicting algal growth inhibition toxicity : three-step strategy using structural and physicochemical properties. We propose a three-step strategy that uses structural and physicochemical properties of chemicals to predict their 72 h algal growth inhibition toxicities against Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. In Step 1, using a log D-based criterion and structural alerts, we produced an interspecies QSAR between algal and acute daphnid toxicities for initial screening of chemicals.
In Step 2, we categorized chemicals according to the Verhaar scheme for aquatic toxicity , and we developed QSARs for toxicities of Class 1 non-polar narcotic and Class 2 polar narcotic chemicals by means of simple regression with a hydrophobicity descriptor and multiple regression with a hydrophobicity descriptor and a quantum chemical descriptor. Using the algal toxicities of the Class 1 chemicals, we proposed a baseline QSAR for calculating their excess toxicities.
In Step 3, we used structural profiles to predict toxicity either quantitatively or qualitatively and to assign chemicals to the following categories: Pesticide, Reactive, Toxic , Toxic low and Uncategorized. Although this three-step strategy cannot be used to estimate the algal toxicities of all chemicals, it is useful for chemicals within its domain.
The strategy is also applicable as a component of Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine Prozac submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri. Santos, Dymes R. The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances.
The fluoxetine hydrochloride FH present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants STPs or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator.
It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC 50 of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2. L -1 and 1. L -1 , respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. Development of pollution reduction strategies for Mexico City: Estimating cost and ozone reduction effectiveness. Reports written for the Mexico City government by various international organizations were used to identify proposed options along with estimates of cost and emission reductions.
A linear optimization method was used to select a group of options or a strategy to be evaluated by decision analysis. However, the reduction of ozone levels is not a linear function of the reduction of hydrocarbon and NO x emissions. Therefore, a more detailed analysis was required for ozone. An equation for a plane on an isopleth calculated with a trajectory model was obtained using two endpoints that bracket the expected total ozone precursor reductions plus the starting concentrations for hydrocarbons and NO x.
The relationship between ozone levels and the hydrocarbon and NO x concentrations was assumed to lie on this plane. This relationship was used in the linear optimization program to select the options comprising a strategy. Least cost planning for CO2- reduction strategies.
A first recommendation for the determination of the minimum costs for a carbon-dioxide reduction strategy is presented. Some basic aspects of this approach are discussed and a first guess of the costs of some measures to avoid CO 2 -emissions into the atmosphere is presented. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia. Full Text Available Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer.
It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction , the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships.
We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation. Paper-based chromatic toxicity bioassay by analysis of bacterial ferricyanide reduction.
Water quality assessment requires a continuous and strict analysis of samples to guarantee compliance with established standards. Nowadays, the increasing number of pollutants and their synergistic effects lead to the development general toxicity bioassays capable to analyse water pollution as a whole.
Current general toxicity methods, e. These requirements delay sample analysis and hence, the response to avoid an environmental catastrophe. Apart from bacterial carrier, paper matrices also acted as a fluidic element, allowing fluid management without the need of external pumps. Bioassay evaluation was performed using copper as model toxic agent. Chromatic changes associated to bacterial ferricyanide reduction were determined by three different transduction methods, i.
In all cases, bioassay results in terms of half maximal effective concentrations, EC50 were in agreement with already reported data, confirming the good performance of the bioassay. The validation of the bioassay was performed by analysis of real samples from natural sources, which were analysed and compared with a reference method i.
The minimum instrumentation. Fast uncertainty reduction strategies relying on Gaussian process models. This work deals with sequential and batch-sequential evaluation strategies of real-valued functions under limited evaluation budget, using Gaussian process models. Optimal Stepwise Uncertainty Reduction SUR strategies are investigated for two different problems, motivated by real test cases in nuclear safety.
First we consider the problem of identifying the excursion set above a given threshold T of a real-valued function f. Then we study the question of finding the set of 'safe controlled configurations', i. New SUR strategies are presented, together with efficient procedures and formulas to compute and use them in real world applications.
The use of fast formulas to recalculate quickly the posterior mean or covariance function of a Gaussian process referred to as the 'kriging update formulas' does not only provide substantial computational savings. It is also one of the key tools to derive closed form formulas enabling a practical use of computationally-intensive sampling strategies.
A contribution in batch-sequential optimization with the multi-points Expected Improvement is also presented. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.
Applicability of salt reduction strategies in pizza crust. In an effort to reduce population-wide sodium intake from processed foods, due to major health concerns, several different strategies for sodium reduction in pizza crust without any topping were evaluated by sensory analyses. The late addition of coarse-grained NaCl crystal size: 0. Likewise, the application of an aqueous salt solution to one side of the pizza crust led to an enhancement of saltiness perception through faster sodium availability, leading to a greater contrast in sodium concentration.
Nitrite addition to acidified sludge significantly improves digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction. Sludge management is a major issue for water utilities globally. Poor digestibility and dewaterability are the main factors determining the cost for sludge management, whereas pathogen and toxic metal concentrations limit beneficial reuse. In this study, the effects of low level nitrite addition to acidified sludge to simultaneously enhance digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction were investigated.
The solids content of dewatered sludge increased from A 4-log reduction for both total coliforms and E. Overall, this study highlights the potential of acidification with low level nitrite addition as an effective and simple method achieving multiple improvements in terms of sludge management. Copper increases reductive dehalogenation of haloacetamides by zero-valent iron in drinking water: Reduction efficiency and integrated toxicity risk.
Since many drinking distribution and storage systems contain unlined cast iron and copper pipes, reactions of HAcAms with zero-valent iron ZVI and metallic copper Cu may play a role in determining their fate. TCAcAm reduction increased with the decreasing pH from 8. CO2 reduction strategies for the Czech Republic. Reduction of CO 2 emissions now has high priority on the international political agenda. The UN Convention on Climate Change provides countries the option for fulfilling the CO 2 reduction obligations individually or jointly.
But before identifying opportunities, a reference path or scenario is needed to indicate how emissions will vary without joint implementation of projects or policies. This paper looks at the situation in the Czech Republic. First objective of the study concerns collecting information on CO 2 emissions in the Czech Republic, a reference scenario for CO 2 developments, and the reduction scope till the year In the new orientation towards a market economy it is important to start preparing policy recommendations for energy and environmental needs based on the least cost approach.
Increasing international cooperation in areas of energy and environmental policies requires a common analytical approach. Particularly for preparing harmonized emission control policies in Europe the use of the EC model EFOM-ENV for all Central European countries can provide comparable and useful insight in the relation between energy use and emissions in Central Europe.
In fact similar studies have been and will be conducted for the Slovak Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, other Central European countries. Tobacco harm reduction : an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers. As this report documents, there is a strong scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction , and it shows great potential as a public health strategy to help millions of smokers.
Consequently here we investigated how MB might exert its neuroprotective properties and found that it acts through reduction of the endoplasmic reticulum ER stress response. We identified three compounds: salubrinal, guanabenz and a new structurally related compound phenazine, which also reduced paralysis, neurodegeneration and oxidative stress in our mTDP models. Using C. Interestingly, these compounds operate through different branches of the ER unfolded protein pathway to achieve a common neuroprotective action.
Our results indicate that protein-folding homeostasis in the ER is an important target for therapeutic development in ALS and other TDPrelated neurodegenerative diseases. Published by Elsevier Inc. Treatment and toxicity reduction of textile dyeing wastewater using the electrocoagulation-electroflotation process. A pilot-scale study was conducted using the electrocoagulation-electroflotation EC-EF process to treat textile dyeing raw wastewater to evaluate treatment performance.
The effects of some key factors, such as current density, hydraulic retention time HRT , and removal of conductivity, total suspended solids TSS , chemical oxygen demand COD , and color were investigated. Daphnia magna was used to test acute toxicity in raw and treated wastewater. The coagulant enhanced removal of all wastewater parameters. The 48 h-LC50 D. The pilot scale test 0.
Ibrutinib-associated bleeding: pathogenesis, management and risk reduction strategies. Ibrutinib is an irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase Btk that has proven to be an effective therapeutic agent for multiple B-cell-mediated lymphoproliferative disorders. Ibrutinib, however, carries an increased bleeding risk compared with standard chemotherapy. Bleeding events range from minor mucocutaneous bleeding to life-threatening hemorrhage, due in large part to the effects of ibrutinib on several distinct platelet signaling pathways.
There is currently a minimal amount of data to guide clinicians regarding the use of ibrutinib in patients at high risk of bleeding or on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. In addition, the potential cardiovascular protective effects of ibrutinib monotherapy in patients at risk of vascular disease are unknown. Patients should be cautioned against using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, fish oils, vitamin E and aspirin-containing products, and consider replacing ibrutinib with a different agent if dual antiplatelet therapy is indicated.
Patients should not take vitamin K antagonists concurrently with ibrutinib; direct oral anticoagulants should be used if extended anticoagulation is strongly indicated. In this review, we describe the pathophysiology of ibrutinib-mediated bleeding and suggest risk reduction strategies for common clinical scenarios associated with ibrutinib. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia. Foell, W. In contrast to Europe and North America, air pollution in Asia is increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air quality problems and higher acidic depositions.
In , an east-west group of scientists initiated a multi-institutional research project on Acid Rain and Emissions Reduction in Asia, funded for the past two years by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. A long-range atmospheric transport model was developed to calculate dispersion and deposition of sulfur, based upon emissions from area and large point sources, on a one-degree grid of Asia.
The resulting impacts of acidic deposition on a variety of vegetation types were analyzed using the critical loads approach to test different emissions management strategies , including both energy conservation measures and sulfur abatement technologies. Influence of boron reduction strategies on PWR accident management flexibility.
In conventional pressurized water reactor PWR designs, soluble boron is used for reactivity control over core fuel cycle. Design changes to reduce boron concentration in the reactor coolant are of general interest regarding three aspects - improved reactivity feedback properties, lower impact of boron dilution scenarios on PWR safety and eventually more flexible accident management procedures.
In order to assess the potential advantages through the introduction of boron reduction strategies in current PWRs, two low boron core configurations based on fuel with increased utilization of gadolinium and erbium burnable absorbers have been developed. The new PWR designs permit to reduce the natural boron concentration in reactor coolant at begin of cycle to ppm and ppm. For the assessment of the potential safety advantages of these cores a hypothetical beyond design basis accident has been simulated with the system code ATHLET.
The analyses showed improved inherent safety and increased accident management flexibility of the low boron cores in comparison with the standard PWR. Phthalate esters and reproductive toxicity the presentation described the uses of phthalates, the toxicity to mammals with a focus on reproductive toxicity and the potency of these chemicals to disrupt mammalian reproductive development in utero.
Mycophenolate fetal toxicity and risk evaluation and mitigation strategies. The mycophenolic acid MPA preparations are one of the most commonly used immunosuppressants in the United States. However, these agents carry a black box warning regarding their use during pregnancy due to an association with increased risk of miscarriage and congenital defects. The medication guide, which was previously FDA-approved in , should continue to be distributed to patients, and the ETASU requires physicians to complete training and obtain patient signatures on the "Patient-Prescriber Acknowledgement Form.
Although the impact of the MPA REMS on clinical practice is not clear, it is a step toward increasing the understanding of fetal risks with MPA products among patients and possibly practitioners. Full Text Available Decolorization of red azo dye Cibacron Red FN-R from synthetic wastewater has been investigated as a function of solar advanced oxidation process.
The photocatalytic activity using ZnO as a photocatalysis has been estimated. Different parameters affected the removal efficiency, including pH of the solution, initial dye concentration and H2O2 concentration were evaluated to find out the optimum value of these parameters. Toxicity reduction percent for effluent solution was also monitored to assess the degradation process.
It can be concluded, from these experiments, that the using of ZnO as a photocatalysis was exhibited as economical and efficient treatment method to remove reactive red dye from aqueous solution. Evaluation of toxicity reduction of sodium dodecyl sulfate submitted to electron beam radiation. Surfactants, as detergent active substances, are an important source of pollution causing biological adverse effects to aquatic organisms.
Several data have been showing ecological disturbance due to the high concentration of surfactants on receiving waters and on wastewater treatment plants. Ionizing radiation has been proved as an effective technology to decompose organic substances and few papers have included ecotoxicological aspects. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity of a specific surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS , when diluted in distilled water and submitted to electron beam radiation.
The study included two test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. Nevertheless, lower doses demonstrated better effect than 9. Toxicity reduction for pharmaceuticals mixture in water by electron beam irradiation. The incorrect disposal of products is committing the environment quality once the aquatic environment is the main vehicle for dispersion of pollutants.
Among the highlighted contaminants there are the pharmaceuticals, which are also released to the aquatic environment through the domestic sewage, hospitals and effluents. The monitoring of these pharmaceuticals in the environment has grown, showing many of them as persistent pollutants. Pharmaceuticals from different therapeutic classes have been detected in domestic sewage, surface water and groundwater around the world.
Several studies evidenced Fluoxetine Hydrochloride residues in waters. Another important product is the Propranolol, used for heart disease treatments as far as fluoxetine is applied for treating mental diseases. The objective of this study was to apply the radiation processing for the abatement of pollutant in waters.
Acute toxicity assays were carried out for Vibrio fischeri marine bacterium, 15 minutes exposure. The results showed that irradiation 2. Inverse effect was obtained with 7. Landslide risk reduction strategies : an inventory for the Global South. Landslides constitute a serious problem globally. Moreover, landslide impact remains underestimated especially in the Global South. It is precisely there where the largest impact is experienced.
An overview of measures taken to reduce risk of landslides in the Global South is however still lacking. Because in many countries of the Global South disaster risk reduction DRR is at an emerging stage, it is crucial to monitor the ongoing efforts e. The first objective of this study is to make an inventory of techniques and strategies that are applied to reduce risk from landslides in tropical countries.
The second objective is to investigate what are the main bottlenecks for implementation of DRR strategies. In order to achieve these objectives, a review of both scientific and grey literature was conducted, supplemented with expert knowledge. The compilation of recommended and implemented DRR measures from landslide-prone tropical countries is based on an adapted classification proposed by the SafeLand project. According to Vaciago , landslide risk can be reduced by either reducing the hazard, the vulnerability, the number or value of elements at risk or by sharing the residual risk.
Global landslide datasets have been used to identify landslide-prone countries, augmented with region-specific datasets. Countries located in the tropics were selected in order to include landslide-prone countries with a different Human Development Index HDI but with a similar climate.
Preliminary results support the statement made by Anderson that although the importance of shifting from post-disaster emergency actions to pre-disaster mitigation is acknowledged, in practice this paradigm shift seems rather limited. It is expected that this is especially the case in countries.
Pro-poor health policies in poverty reduction strategies. The objective of this study is to arrive at a systematic assessment of the extent to which the first batch of interim PRSPs actually addresses the health of the poor and vulnerable. A literature study was used to design and test a semi-quantitative approach to assess the pro-poor focus of health policies in national documents.
The approach was applied to the existing interim proposals for 23 Highly Indebted Poor Countries. Results show that a majority of proposals lack country-specific data on the distribution and composition of the burden of disease, a clear identification of health system constraints and an assessment of the impact of health services on the population.
More importantly, they make little effort to analyze these issues in relation to the poor. Furthermore, only a small group explicitly includes the interests of the poor in health policy design. Attention to policies aiming at enhancing equity in public health spending is even more limited. Few papers that include expenditure proposals also show pro-poor focused health budgets. We conclude that our systematic assessment of a new international development policy instrument, PRSP, raises strong concerns about the attributed role of health in development and the limited emphasis on the poor, the supposed primary beneficiaries of this instrument.
There is a need and an opportunity for the international development community to provide assistance and inputs as poor countries shift their policy thinking from an interim stage to fully developed national policies. This paper presents a menu of analytical and policy options that can be pursued. Considerations in designing an effective control strategy related to air quality, controlling pollution sources, need for regional or national controls, steps to developing a control strategy , and additional EPA resources.
Anaerobic baffled reactor coupled with chemical precipitation for treatment and toxicity reduction of industrial wastewater. This study describes the reduction of soluble chemical oxygen demand CODs and the removal of dissolved organic carbon DOC , formaldehyde FA and nitrogen from highly polluted wastewater generated during cleaning procedures in wood floor manufacturing using a laboratory-scale biological anaerobic baffled reactor followed by chemical precipitation using MgCI2.
By increasing the hydraulic retention time from 2. When the Mg:N:P molar ratio in the chemical treatment was changed from to 1. Biologically and chemically treated wastewater had no toxic effects on Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina whereas chemically treated wastewater inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa owing to a high salt content.
Regardless of the high conductivity of the treated wastewater, combined biological and chemical treatment was found to be effective for the removal of the organic load and nitrogen, and to be simple to operate and to maintain. A combined process such as that investigated could be useful for on-site treatment of low volumes of highly polluted wastewater generated by the wood floor and wood furniture industries, for which there is no suitable on-site treatment option available today.
Possibilities of utilizing zeolites for the reduction of toxical noxious gases of combustion engines. The decisive influence on the adsorbing power has the capacity of porous in unit of volume of the sorbent and dimensions of canals. Recently, there is an increased interest to utilize zeolites in the partial reduction of NOx, CO and hydrocarbons in the combustion products. The catalysts used to detoxication of exhalation combustion engines are less effective during periods of relatively low temperature operation, such as the initial cold-start period of engine operation.
Some European, American and Japones patents are directed to the use of a zeolite catalyst for the reduction of hydrocarbons, CO and NOx. The noble metals and acid zeolites are used as a catalyst of noxious components. The adsorbent material, which may be a zeolite is part treatment system in order to adsorb gaseous pollutants during of cold start period of engine operation.
CO2 reduction strategies for the Northern Netherlands. The concern about global warming initiated ambitious CO2 reduction goals in cities and regions in the Netherlands. This article describes a study of such a local initiative for the Northern Netherlands. Although they have the data, they do not report relations between risk and ambiguity attitudes. But this is then also done for the members of the family. Then these members can, without any more trouble, get to know if they are risky or not.
Similar, if child in mother is tested to be aborted if risky then mother is also tested and be informed. Often mothers prefer not to know about themselves. First, When a passion, such as hope or fear, grief or joy, despair or security, is founded on the supposition or the existence of objects, which really do not exist.
Secondly, When in exerting any passion in action, we chuse means insufficient for the design'd end, and deceive ourselves in our judgment of causes and effects. Where a passion is neither founded on false suppositions, nor chuses means insufficient for the end, the understanding can neither justify nor condemn it.
A trivial good may, from certain circumstances, produce a desire superior to what arises from the greatest and most valuable enjoyment; nor is there any thing more extraordinary in this, than in mechanics to see one pound weight raise up a hundred by the advantage of its situation. In short, a passion must be accompany'd with some false judgment. Or, in other words, where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed.
A cause makes a difference to whether its effect obtains: without it, the effect would not have obtained. Certainty equivalents of prospects are elicited through matching. From that, choices are derived indirectly. In the learning treatment, subjects are shown 10 drawings of each prospect before deciding.
These drawings were manipulated so as to be representative deception when implementing real incentives. Some deviations from expected utility were reduced but others were enhanced. The author is, understandably, more enthusiastic about his own research speciality, event splitting, than about other topics when he writes p.
Use random incentive system. Did it with poor farmers from the countries mentioned in the title. Unfortunately, the papers have no cross references to explain their overlap and priority. This paper examines long-term effects. People slowly react to the nudge, only slowly reducing energy use, but after a prolonged exposure the effect remains long after. So, variation on information-sensitivity. Their data do not find much, H 0. Then asked subjects to predict how many reds there would be in, say, 5 drawings, always with replacement.
Subjects received a prize if they guessed right. Obviously, they should gamble on the most likely result of the five drawings. Seems that they did not do this very well, but for small real probability of red acted as if this probability was higher, and for large real probability as if it was smaller inverse-S. I did not understand on p. Conclude that previous conclusions in the literature about divergence of subjective and objective probabilities may be based on faulty assumptions, such as strict rationality.
Incentive compatibility occurred before in proper scoring rules by Brier and de Finetti Looks already quite like utility. Find that linear relation gives good fit. Exponential transform provides little gain. Blaise Pascal seems to have encouraged him to write this book. They call this new but Andersen et al. Correlate their findings with smoking behavior. Natural that obesity and the like will be related to this. Sign dependence is also related to it.
The author discuss advantages of this family. The implied desire to hedge leads to portfolio inertia also if free market, and also for investors who do participate in the market. Small pieces of news can lead to drastic changes and excess volatility. Interaction between risk and ambiguity may explain spikes in stock price volatility.
The authors argue that this assumption is unfounded. That problem was to justify the implicit assumption that, for any given individual, there exists some mode of latent reasoning that generates complete and context-independent subjective preferences. It takes space to put every possible detail right. Their actions reflect the tactics of the choice architect rather than exclusively their own evaluation of alternatives.
Little surprise that I disagree sometimes, in two places. The first is p. It need not just be wrong cognitive belief about probability. It can also be wrong FEELING while right knowing imperfect numerical sensitivity , or pessimistic overattention to worst outcomes, or deliberate nonlinear decision weighting, e.
The professional does not have an own agenda. The arguments we have developed in this paper would not be objections to a version of behavioural welfare economics that claimed only to regularise revealed preferences that were inconsistent with conventional theory, without interpreting this process as the identification and correction of errors, or as a way of helping individuals to make better choices.
But that is not the version of behavioural welfare economics that is to be found in the literature. Do hypothetical choice because of losses in three-color Ellsberg. However, as usual in this case, they did not control for suspicion suspicion under ambiguity. Subjects could not choose the color to gamble on. What the authors call subadditivity is the usual violation of the s. They do not do neuromeasurement but cite much literature on it. Comparing to similar risks, such as same-age and same-sex people having a 0.
This paper proposes several such ways to explain. Reminds me of an idea of Ron Howard , to introduce a new unit for a small probability of dying, the microort, to help people in communication. They measure subjective discount rate by fitting hyperbolic discounting, where they take some indifferences and assume linear utility.
Because they have utility curvature for CRRA risk aversion they could use this utility function to correct discounting for utility curvature, as in Andersen et al. But they are not clear on whether they did so and probably they didn't, and simply assumed linear utility. The latter is better than the Andersen et al. For risk and time attitudes, they consider two different outcomes: money and number of plants planted that are good for the environment.
They call these monetary and environmental environments. The differences they claim in risk and time attitudes can be due simply to different utility of the two kinds of outcomes. Utility curvature of money can be different than of plants, as these can be different than for apples, pears, quantity of wine drunk, and so on.
Oh well, I think that loss aversion is strong but volatile, and small details can change it. The paper uses repeated payments in each game again, and not a RIS. This in itself can move in the direction of expected value. Measures matching probabilities of the right to play a strategic game against an opponent.
Interprets playing the game as ambiguity. This is often done. One usually does not know the probability of what the opponent does. But a difference may be that strategic considerations concern more than what is usually called uncertainty or ambiguity. This is what some Fox, Tversky, Wu, Gonzalez have called the two-stage model, although they allowed for nonadditive beliefs.
Next, matching probabilities are measured if I understand right from binary choices between playing the game and playing a lottery. From this, subjects are categorized into three categories: ambiguity averse, ambiguity neutral, and ambiguity seeking. Not very surprising given that here other, strategic, aspects play a role. Epstein took probabilistic sophistication as designating unambiguity risk , and took deviations from probabilistic sophistication as ambiguity. He with much emphasis did not want any exogenous concept of unambiguous.
Thus if there is probabilistic sophistication within two sources, as is the case here and as also in Ellsberg 2-color , then he had no tool for saying which is unambiguous his event-derivatives are impractical in this experiment, as everywhere. Thus he can only capture the pessimism component, and only the positive part of it negative pessimism, i.
Linear utility in the 2 nd stage is very reasonable because 1 st stage utils are input here. They are kind of axiomatizing using RDU for ambiguity! It takes a two-stage approach as the smooth model does. For risk, known probabilities, it still assumes EU so that a vNM utility function U captures risk attitude.
But then, unlike smooth, the second order integral does not involve an extra utility transformation, but an RDU Choquet-type integral with the nonadditive measure capturing ambiguity attitude. Whereas an ambiguity-neutral person would use goodnews probabilities that are linearly through 2nd order probabilities weighted averages of goodnews probabilities, the author here inserts a transformation this is a capital upsilon and it is called the outlook function on [0,1] giving a quasilinear mean, doing mathematically with goodnews probabilities what certainty equivalents in EU do with outcomes.
Concavity of the transformation pushes down all the resulting goodnews probabilities, bringing extra pessimism and, hence, ambiguity aversion, and with convexity it all is opposite. Interestingly, if the transformation is S-shaped opposite of inverse-S in the sense of convex then concave then this gives likelihood insensitivity: the goodnews probabilities for best outcomes are small and all move in the area where the transformation is convex, giving overestimation and extra optimism there.
For worst outcomes we similarly get underestimation of the goodnews probabilities and extra pessimism. The model has attitudes referring to the set of probabilities and, thus, is event-driven rather than outcome-driven. If I understand right, this is taken as reference- or sign dependence.
For the aversion to mean-preserving spreads to which concavity of is equivalent, we need 2nd order probabilities exogenously given to make this directly observable. It takes an, exogenously set, two-stage model of ambiguity like the smooth model only using RDU-type goodnews probability transformation rather than the utility-transformation of the smooth model. Then it does parametric data fitting to assess 2nd order beliefs and the rest. It finds that, whereas extra risk-volatility makes people exercise options later, a common and plausible phenomenon, ambiguity does the opposite.
It does not take game theory as given, but investigates what game structure has best properties, which makes it primarily a normative field. It experimentally tests it. So as to separate genuine time preference as of consumption from market-driven cash-flow, they use a special system of paying in tokens leading to discounted payoffs p.
They also obtain intransitivity results. Decision bias discount information of others too much in our decisions in a law context. Stronger with real experienced attorneys although better calibrated than with students. Experience enhances costly mistake! Gives a separation of ambiguity in decision situation and ambiguity attitude. Let X be an outcome set it is that more than a state space, as it is originally called in this paper , F the set of all belief functions could be extended to capacities on X, and let a preference relation over F be given.
We can mix belief functions, and impose the usual vNM mixture-independence condition on preferences this is best conceivable if the belief functions are exogenously given. It characterizes a preference functional over belief functions, linear w. This can be taken as ambiguous outcomes vs. Share with your friends:. Main page same name overall utility.
There is no point seeing how your opponent would play all of his hands, if you can not first determine what hands he might have that arrive at the current state given the previous bets. This includes card replacement effects, since if you hold a King of hearts, your opponent is much less likely to have two kings, and somewhat less likely to hold a hearts flush draw on a flush draw board.
Betting-wise, the AI still bets in a few fixed amounts, but these include more bet sizes, to the point that the AI actually varies its bet sizing more than most humans. Man I wish I could upgrade, or at least buy some extra memory and unload the difficult computation in life to an AWS Lambda.
In another spot, he had Aces himself, but the AI ran him down and made a flush with suited. Besides those hands, Dong thought he ran pretty good, and any good player would be ahead with the cards he was dealt. Would have been nice. In the other duplicate match, both players lost. Humans still have some edges to be sure, but we also make mistakes. A player moves within seconds, and he is not really trying to solve for an optimal strategy.
Thus unless the AI has consistent bugs in important weird corner cases, it is hard to see how people could both play solid enough not to lose, and well enough to exploit the AI in the cases where it is possible. This reminds me of the adage, that once a computer is as good as a human, it is already better. Even if you notice that the players that DeepStack competed against were not highly vetted or well-compensated for their time, one has every reason to believe that this is also a very strong system.
Batching something on GPU, perhaps? Or maybe just considering fewer simulation states. It would be great to see the two flagship AIs battle each other sometime this year. That seems unlikely, as the setup for Libratus is pretty involved and rather expensive, and I would expect that DeepStack is similarly difficult to run.
Someone would have to put up a substantial prize pool to get both artificial Hellmuths in the same room. Any takers? Will one be significantly further ahead of the other? Surely, playing as well as the best humans heads-up is not where this ends. Speaking with the developers of the current poker systems, many are looking forward to other AI systems, and beyond poker for their future work.
It would be great to see that change. In conversations with others involved in the Annual Computer Poker Competition , there has been interest in a multi-player match. Would we get enough entries for a full 6-player table? It would be tough, but you gotta start somewhere. Amarillo Slim won the third World Series of Poker by besting just seven other players.
Surely with MIT and other colleges hosting poker-AI classes and competitions, we could get multiple entries simply by promoting the tournament and doing more to help people submit their entries to the competition. Some coders submit poker AIs to win. But surely it could make some progress, perhaps going back to smaller card abstractions. Even a hack on top of a heads-up AI might get pretty far, and at least provide a decent starting point to building multi-handed approaches.
With a neural network, once you have a decent opponent equilibrium, neural net, or player hand logs , it might be possible to build something decent, and have it improve with self-play. With access to a decent equilibrium opponent, it should be possible to try different strategies, and start picking apart which ones do the best, perhaps in , hand matches. These matches take weeks against poker pros, but could be run overnight between computers online.
A simplified version might start with a hyper-parameter search. What if it starts folding more often in big pots? Perhaps there are not many weaknesses left to find. It might be more effective to training an adversarial network to recognize if you are playing against a human, a weak AI, or one of these equilibrium monsters.
Professional players seem more than a little bit concerned about being trolled with strong AIs posing as humans, as DeepMind had done on a Chinese Go server recently. I hung out with the the CMU poker group and the pro players on the Twitch stream the rest of the day.
The players were impressed by the how the computer continues to play. The early-hand strategy is also more nuanced than last year, in part creating more turn and river situations, which drove the players a bit nuts once the games started turning into 20 second plus waits consistently on both of their screens.
To a strong but non-professional player, it looked like very good poker. Results suggest that prior performance and several contextual variables explain variations in marketing strategy emphasis. In particular, higher gross patient revenues are associated with more emphasis on television and radio advertising.
Furthermore, rural New Mexico hospitals with high numbers of licensed beds and medical staff members, or that are affiliated with a chain organization, place greater emphasis on market research and market planning. The implications for marketing practice in rural hospitals are discussed. Out-of-the-Box Marketing Strategies. The new definition of camp includes year-round camp programs for a variety of populations at multiple sites.
Developing a marketing strategy involves creating a mission statement that is unique, publishing a year-round marketing strategy , delivering a consistent quality product, and getting people to talk about camp. Sidebar lists elements of how…. A Marketing Strategy for Spanish for Business. The development of a marketing strategy for business Spanish courses by means of situational analysis is described.
The planner of marketing strategy must consider demand for a course, institutional acceptance, and financial support. A survey of universities revealed a low level of demand for business Spanish which could potentially be…. Opitmal Platform Strategies in the Smartphone Market. In a smartphone market , smartphone makers encourage smartphone application providers AP to create more popular smartphone applications through making a revenue-sharing contract with AP and providing application-purchasing support to end users.
In this paper, we study revenue-sharing and application-purchasing support problem between a risk-averse smartphone maker and a smartphone application provider. The problem is formulated as the smartphone makers's risk-sensitive stochastic control problem.
The sufficient conditions for the existence of the optimal revenue-sharing strategy , the optimal application-purchasing support strategy and the incentive compatible effort recommended to AP are obtained. The effects of the smartphone makers's risk-sensitivity on the optimal strategies are also discussed. A numerical example is solved to show the computation aspects of the problem. Marketing strategies for vascular practitioners. A common misconception is that marketing is synonymous with advertising.
Marketing by physicians has undergone a transformation from the earlier unacceptable slick sales pitches to a more common sense, tasteful, comprehensive, and well thought out plan to reach potential patients. Marketing is a much broader concept comprising four aspects: product, price, promotion, and place.
Marketing activities for a medical practice include not only external but internal tactics. Publicly available resources are available to assist physicians in developing and targeting the plan towards a narrow patient demographic. The marketing process includes: determining objectives, identifying resources, defining target population, honing a message, outlining a media plan, implementing the plan, and finally, evaluating the success or failure of the marketing campaign.
A basic knowledge of marketing combined with a common sense approach can yield dividends for those practices that need the service. For surgical practices that exist in heavily populated urban areas with significant competition, a well thought out marketing plan can assist the practice in reaching out to new groups of patients and maintaining the existing patient base.
Cost- effectiveness of strategies to market and train primary health care physicians in brief intervention techniques for hazardous alcohol use. The cost- effectiveness of strategies to market and train primary care physicians in brief intervention for hazardous alcohol consumption was examined.
Physicians were randomly assigned to one of three marketing strategies designed to promote the "uptake" of a brief intervention package for hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. The strategies were direct mail, tele- marketing , or academic detailing.
One hundred and twenty-seven of those physicians who requested the package during the marketing phase phase 1 and who also agreed to participate in the training and support phase of the project phase 2 were matched into one of three training and support conditions: training and no support, training and minimal support, training and maximal support. An additional 34 physicians were randomly selected and assigned to a control condition. The ultimate aim of training and support was to maximise physician screening and counselling rates.
Tele- marketing was found to be more cost- effective than academic detailing and direct mail in promoting the uptake of the package. For the training and support phase costs and effects increased with the level of support, hence the issue to be considered is whether the additional cost incurred in moving from one strategy to another is warranted given the increase in the level of outcome. The effects of structure, strategy and market conditions on the operating practices of physician-organization arrangements.
Research to date has documented weak or inconsistent associations between market and organizational factors and the adoption of physician-organization arrangements POAs e. We argue that POAs may mask considerable variation in how these entities are operated and governed. Further, because the operating policies and practices of POAs are likely to influence more directly the behaviour of physicians than the structural form of the POA, they may be more sensitive to the market and organizational contingencies that encourage integration.
This study attempts to test empirically the relative effects of POA type and market , strategic and organization factors on the operating policies and practices of market -based POAs. Results suggest that type of POA, and market , strategic and organizational factors affect risk sharing, physician selection practices, physician monitoring practices and ways in which monitoring information is used to influence physician behaviour in POAs.
New dimension of slow food movement using supercritical fluid technology and methods to influence society by effective marketing strategies. Although slow food movement is a well-known movement nowadays, in order to make it more widespread to the society, necessity to develop and to adapt new techniques has become inevitable for healthier consumption age.
For this purpose, possibility of increased usage of healthy foods with addition of natural extracts using new techniques came out from relevant questionaries applied to people of different age groups. In this study, specific properties of supercritical carbon dioxide at distinct temperatures and water in subcritical conditions were used to obtain extracts rich in water-soluble organic compounds.
The highest water-soluble organic compound recovery yield was Results were supported by marketing strategies to announce this new application and products to the society. Group of sample questions was prepared to investigate a frequency of staple food usage, b the brand names and relevant reasons that bring up consumers to buy specifically same branded products, c knowledge about the ingredients and how advertising effects purchasing decision, etc.
Finally, efficiency increase in slow food consumption was proved with supercritical fluid technology to draw attention to the health of consumers with newer and functional healthy foods. The project described in this report aimed to develop an effective and affordable educational marketing strategy in one local British continuing education provider, as a case study for adult and continuing education nationally.
Methods employed were as follows: a marketing consultant visited education centers; business and community directories…. Transformation: Effectively Marketing Change in the Army. The Army has an effective strategy for Transformation. It is widely accepted that the Army led the way in Competitive marketing strategies. A challenge for academic practices. A special challenge has been presented to academic medical practices by the new healthcare environment. While increased competition for patients and resources affects all medical groups, it is the academic practices who are responsible for training the physicians of tomorrow.
Not only must they sharpen their students' awareness of the new environment and teach them to incorporate effective management strategies into their practices, but they must set an example in effective management as well.
The basic concepts of competitive marketing strategy , along with helpful exhibits, are presented here, and strategies for effectively maximizing position are discussed from the viewpoints of product mix, process market , and financing. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics.
Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan.
The study includes 1 background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; 2 a brief market assessment; 3 a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; 4 a discussion of commercialization issues; and 5 strategy principles.
It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role. Developing marketing strategies for university teaching hospitals. University teaching hospitals face increasing competition from community hospitals, expanding regulation of health care, a rising tide of consumerism, and in many cases a declining urban population base.
These problems, which may threaten the teaching hospital's ability to continue tertiary care, teaching, and research functions, may be solved with the aid of new marketing strategies. In developing its marketing strategy , a hospital must assess its strengths and weaknesses, specify its goals in measurable terms, implement tactics to achieve these goals, and evaluate its marketing program.
The strategies should be directed toward achieving better relationships with institutions, practitioners, and surrounding communities and increasing patient, visitor, and employee satisfaction. A wide variety of programs can be used to reach these goals and to help teaching hospitals meet the competitive challenges of this decade. This study relates an audit experience with an interdisciplinary team in public health services at Fortaleza-CE and aims to describe the functional dimension of these audit actions and the its importance for nursing; to define a model with a professional marketing strategy for the nurse.
Theoretical bases of contemporary Administration were used to converge with the audit practice experiences. One proposes a new audit nursing strategy in favor of the professional significance, because the nurse currently conducts actions with a scientific marketing identity, but at the unconscious level. Start-up analysis for marketing strategy.
The complex start-up effect on utilization of health care services is too often overlooked or underestimated by marketing planners, leading to a range of negative consequences for both the users of services and the provider organization. Start-up analysis allows accurate estimation of these utilization effects for coordinated strategic planning among marketing finance, and operations. Strategies for navigating the healthcare credit market.
Not-for-profit healthcare organizations are experiencing a tightened credit market due to financial stresses on the healthcare industry such as declining payments, effects of the Balanced Budget Act of , and the shift to outpatient care. In the future, healthcare organizations wanting to access the capital market will be expected to preserve cash as an "insurance policy," offer greater security and stricter covenants, and report financial information on a quarterly basis.
To meet these requirements and navigate today's tighter credit market , healthcare financial managers will need to focus on the organization's most reliably profitable areas of business, link strategic and financial issues, and carefully monitor the balance sheet. HCA Richmond Hospitals' new marketing strategy a winning plan. The marketing strategy enables individual hospital to target their own unique constituencies.
Using internal communication as a marketing strategy : gaining physician commitment. In the ambulatory care industry, increased competition and promotional costs are pressuring managers to design more creative and effective marketing strategies.
One largely overlooked strategy is careful monitoring of the daily communication between physicians and ambulatory care staff providing physician services. Satisfying physician communication needs is the key to increasing physician commitment and referrals.
This article outlines the steps necessary to first monitor, then improve the quality of all communication provided to physicians by ambulatory care personnel. Models for electricity market efficiency and bidding strategy analysis. This dissertation studies models for the analysis of market efficiency and bidding behaviors of market participants in electricity markets. Simulation models are developed to estimate how transmission and operational constraints affect the competitive benchmark and market prices based on submitted bids.
This research contributes to the literature in three aspects. First, transmission and operational constraints, which have been neglected in most empirical literature, are considered in the competitive benchmark estimation model. Second, the effects of operational and transmission constraints on market prices are estimated through two models based on the submitted bids of market participants.
In electricity markets , electric firms compete through both spot market bidding and bilateral contract trading. A linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium SFE model with transmission constraints is proposed in this dissertation to analyze the bidding strategies with forward contracts. The research contributes to the literature in several aspects. First, we combine forward contracts, transmission constraints, and multi-period strategy an obligation for firms to bid consistently over an extended time horizon such as a day or an hour into the linear asymmetric supply function equilibrium framework.
As an ex-ante model, it can provide qualitative insights into firms' behaviors. Third, the model is a general one in the sense that there is no limitation on the number of firms and scale of the transmission network, which can have. Infant food marketing strategies undermine effective regulation of breast-milk substitutes: trends in print advertising in Australia, This study addresses the issue of whether voluntary industry regulation has altered companies' marketing of breast-milk substitutes in Australia since the adoption of the World Health Organization WHO International Code on the Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes Although there was almost no infant formula advertising in AWW after , other breast-milk substitute advertising has been increasing since , in particular for baby food, toddler formula and food and brand promotion.
Companies have adopted strategies to minimise the effects of the Code on sales and profit in Australia, including increasing toddler formula and food advertisements, increasing brand promotion to the public, and complying with more limited voluntary regulatory arrangements.
Comprehensive regulation is urgently required to address changed marketing practices if it is to protect breastfeeding in Australia. Push and pull strategies : applications for health care marketing. As health care markets mature and expand, strategies available in other industries become useful.
This article examines how traditional push-pull strategies apply to health care. Marketers using a push strategy recognize that the sale of their services or goods is dependent upon the endorsement of a middleman and promote their product through the middleman. Those using a pull strategy market directly to the consumer. In this article, the author outlines the advantages and disadvantages of using each strategy. Marketing telehealth to align with strategy. Telehealth is a twenty-first century solution to an old problem-how to deliver quality health services with shrinking resources.
Telehealth enables healthcare providers to interact with and monitor patients remotely, thus adding value to service delivery models. On occasion, telehealth can substitute for live encounters, saving time and resources. Furthermore, as the geriatric population increases, telehealth will support independent living by supplementing the existing network of care.
To be used most effectively , however, telehealth services must be carefully planned and executed. This study investigated management practices used to promote telehealth services, focusing on strategic goals for adopting telehealth.
Interviews with senior managers from 19 home health agencies identified three strategic goals for adopting telehealth: 1 clinical excellence, 2 technological preeminence, and 3 cost containment. Organizational documents were analyzed to determine the extent to which the telehealth program was featured in marketing materials. Documents included the organization's brochure, newspaper ads and articles, and each home health agency's web site. Results showed that marketing practices vary widely but are correlated with motivations to adopt telehealth.
The organizations with the highest marketing scores emphasize clinical excellence as a major reason for using telehealth, whereas those with the lowest marketing scores tend to focus on cost containment. Although this study focused on management practices in home health agencies, results are applicable to hospital and outpatient services as well as to other community-based programs.
Using a strategic management framework, the authors offer recommendations to help organizations develop effective marketing approaches for telehealth programs. Marketing decision support systems for strategy building. Brand teams charged with the commercialization of pharmaceutical products in the pipeline operate in an uncertain environment.
Market , customer and competitive interrelationships undergo changes, often in ways that are unpredictable with conventional research practices. This article describes a framework whereby such uncertainty can be managed more effectively in the context of ongoing business needs. Strategies to crack well-guarded markets. How can companies break into attractive markets , where incumbents erect many barriers to entry? To answer this question, the authors studied organizations that successfully entered the most profitable industries in the United States between and When they dissected the strategies that worked best, one common theme stood out: indirect assault.
Smart newcomers don't duplicate existing business models, compete for crowded distribution channels, or go after mainstream customers right away. Instead, they attack the enemy at its weakest points; then gain competitive advantage; and later, if doing so meets their objectives, go after its strongholds. Recent battles in the soft drink industry--where brands, bottling and distribution capabilities, and shelf space are incumbents' main advantages--are a case in point.
When Virgin Drinks entered the U. Red Bull, by contrast, came on the scene in with a niche product: a carbonated energy drink. The company started by selling the drink at bars and nightclubs. After gaining a loyal following through these outlets, Red Bull elbowed its way into the corner store. Successful entrants use three basic approaches in their indirect attacks.
They leverage their existing assets and resources, reconfigure their value chains, and create niches. These approaches may appear to be simple, but their magic lies in their combination. By mixing and matching them, Bryce and Dyer say, enterprises can defy half a century of economic logic and make money entering highly profitable industries. The authors use Skype, Costco, Skechers, and many other companies to illustrate their argument. To cultivate an online market share, companies must design marketing strategies specifically for the Internet.
This article examines the nature of business on the Internet, highlighting demographics, user control, accessibility, communication, authenticity, competition, and security and proposes a marketing strategy , including targeting and…. Studying information diffusion through social networks has become an active research topic with important implications in viral marketing applications.
One of the fundamental algorithmic problems related to viral marketing is the Influence Maximization IM problem: given an social network, which set of nodes should be considered by the viral marketer as the initial targets, in order to maximize the influence of the advertising message.
In this work, we study the IM problem in an information-overloaded online social network. Information overload occurs when individuals receive more information than they can process, which can cause negative impacts on the overall marketing effectiveness.
Many practical countermeasures have been proposed for alleviating the load of information on recipients. However, how these approaches can benefit viral marketers is not well understood. In our work, we have adapted the classic Information Cascade Model to incorporate information overload and study its countermeasures. Our results suggest that effective control of information overload has the potential to improve marketing effectiveness , but the targeting strategy should be re-designed in response to these countermeasures.
Four marketing strategies are critical to the success of adult degree programs: integrating marketing , knowing your students research , shaping programs and services for adults, and staying the course retention. Marketing strategies nurses can employ to promote health.
Marketing strategies are employed to ensure the success of new products, services or programs. Both profit and non-profit organizations have used social marketing strategies to inform, to motivate interest, and to engage the involvement of the consumer.
A client-dependent health care system did not find it necessary to market services, but a health care system that encourages clients to choose the most appropriate health promotion service available must market services. Nurses are in the business of promoting the health of clients. Therefore, it is essential that nurses become familiar with, and involved in, the development of marketing plans and strategies. The connection between the four variables of the marketing mix product, promotion, place, and price and promoting the health of clients is described.
A case example recapitulating the marketing strategies employed to raise public awareness of a self-help group for family caregivers is related, the marketing response is evaluated, and future recommendations are proposed. Essential dimensions of a marketing strategy in the hospital industry. This paper reviews existing literature and defines essential dimensions of a hospital's marketing strategy for each of two business strategies ; using the results of a national survey, this study confirms that hospitals make different marketing decisions based on the type of business strategy adopted by the hospital.
Interactive Marketing : Customers as Collaborators. Marketing Strategies Series. This booklet, which is intended for individuals responsible for marketing continuing higher education, presents an interactive approach to educational marketing in which customers play the role of collaborators. The booklet begins with brief profiles of successful interactive marketing programs at three universities.
Examined next are labor market…. Developing a promotional strategy : important questions for social marketing. Health practitioners often use the terms marketing and promotion interchangeably. Yet, promotion is just one element of an overall marketing strategy.
To realize the greatest impact there must be a combination of all the marketing components, including product, price, place, and promotion. The purpose of this article is to clarify the role of promotion and describe key elements of developing a promotional strategy within the broader context of a social marketing initiative. To 'enable our legal product to compete effectively with the transit market ': British American Tobacco's strategies in Thailand following the GATT dispute.
The opening of the Thai tobacco market , following action brought by the US Trade Representative under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, is seen as a key case study of the tensions between trade and health policy. Interpretations of the dispute cast it, either as an example of how trade agreements undermine national policy-making, or how governments can adopt effective public health protections compliant with international trade rules. This paper argues that its close monitoring of the illegal trade during this period, the role of smuggling in the company's global business strategy , and its management of the relative supply and pricing of legal and illegal products after market opening provide a fuller understanding of the interests and roles of transnational tobacco companies and the government in this dispute.
The findings have important policy implications, notably the role of effective governance in countries facing pressure to open their tobacco sectors, need to better understand corporate-level activities within an increasingly globalised tobacco industry, and need to address the intertwined legal and illegal trade in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products. Trading strategy based on dynamic mode decomposition: Tested in Chinese stock market.
Dynamic mode decomposition DMD is an effective method to capture the intrinsic dynamical modes of complex system. In this work, we adopt DMD method to discover the evolutionary patterns in stock market and apply it to Chinese A-share stock market. We design two strategies based on DMD algorithm.
The strategy which considers only timing problem can make reliable profits in a choppy market with no prominent trend while fails to beat the benchmark moving-average strategy in bull market. After considering the spatial information from spatial-temporal coherent structure of DMD modes, we improved the trading strategy remarkably. Then the DMD strategies profitability is quantitatively evaluated by performing SPA test to correct the data-snooping effect.
The results further prove that DMD algorithm can model the market patterns well in sideways market. A strategy for controlling the marketing of tobacco products: a regulated market model. PubMed Central. Objective: To outline a novel strategy for controlling the tobacco market. Arguments: More comprehensive controls over the tobacco market are essential and long overdue.
Effective controls need to encourage the development of less harmful products; control commercial communication to ensure that potential harms are highlighted relative to any benefits; and provide mechanisms to move consumers away from tobacco use, or at least towards less harmful alternatives. Achieving this by regulating the existing industry is one strategy. This paper puts the case for an alternative: to have marketing controlled by an agency called here the Tobacco Products Agency, or TPA which tendered to manufacturers for product and which distributed to retailers in ways that reduce incentives to bend or break the law.
The TPA would be backed by legislation that made tobacco a controlled substance with possession sale and use only allowed as permitted by the regulations, which in reality would be only as provided by the TPA. Conclusions: The overall effect of such a model, which we call a "regulated market model", would be to eliminate most of the incentives and remaining opportunities for commercial promotion of tobacco and to create incentives to encourage the development of less harmful tobacco products.
Such a model preserves the competition inherent in a free market , but directs it towards the challenge of reducing the harm from tobacco use. To outline a novel strategy for controlling the tobacco market. More comprehensive controls over the tobacco market are essential and long overdue. The overall effect of such a model, which we call a "regulated market model", would be to eliminate most of the incentives and remaining opportunities for commercial promotion of tobacco and to create incentives to encourage the development of less harmful tobacco products.
Purpose: The main purpose of this study is threefold: to analyze the current conditions of higher education services offered in the three target markets ; to conduct market segmentation analysis of these markets ; and to recommend the most appropriate market entry strategies for Hong Kong's education service providers. Marketing strategies of nurse practitioners in New York State.
As competition within the health care field increases, marketing strategies are becoming more important for all members of the health care team, including nurse practitioners. The purpose of this research was to identify marketing strategies being used by nurse practitioners in New York state. A total of practitioners responded to a survey containing questions related to marketing techniques traditionally used in the business world: service differentiation, market segmentation and practice promotion.
A majority of respondents did not report using many of the marketing strategies contained in the survey, although most nurse practitioners did report identifying themselves as primary care providers in one-on-one interactions with clients. Significantly higher marketing scores were found for nurse practitioners who attended a workshop or seminar on marketing strategies , had three or more years of experience, or who practiced in private outpatient settings.
CVS Health has taken a strategic marketing move by banning tobacco sales. They risk losing customers who buy medications and cigarettes at their drugstores. They estimate they will lose 2 billion dollars by banning cigarette sales. CVS Health believes they will benefit from being regarded as health care partner by insurers and banning cigarette sales is an important step in being recognized as such.
The Affordable Care Act expanded access to pharmacy-based medical clinics, increased affordability of medications, and expanded the clinical role of pharmacists. CVS Health is positioning itself to take advantage of these changes. Marketing Library Services: Strategy for Survival. Discusses the conditions necessary for the success of marketing programs within libraries and methods of implementing a formal marketing program.
The four factors of the marketing mix product, place, price, promotion are considered and administrative decisions are explored within the framework of these four factors. Student Target Marketing Strategies for Universities. As colleges and universities adopt marketing orientations to an ever-increasing extent, the relative merits of mass marketing and target marketing must also be explored.
Researchers identify buyer types as potential students focused on quality, value or economy. On the other axis, learner types are described as those who focus on career,…. Leadership Strategies for Meeting New Challenges. Illustrates concepts and techniques available from marketing and related fields that can enrich decision making about marketing by continuing education administrators. They are concepts concerning marketing by nonprofit organizations, promotional techniques, highlights from a handbook on the use of direct mail, and the use of decision trees.
Successful Strategies for Marketing School Levies. Fastback No. The use of modern marketing concepts to assist public school districts in the passage of school levies and bond issues is presented in this guidebook. The modern marketing concept is based on maximizing customer satisfaction and solving the problem of the consumer. Strategies are presented for conducting market analysis; financing, organizing, and…. A conceptual model is presented that depicts the relationship between an internal marketing function and an organization's readiness to learn.
Learning and marketing orientations are identified as components to marketing strategy making. Key organizational functions, including communication and decision-making, are utilized in a framework for…. After discussing current community college financial problems, this paper examines the acquisition of alternative funding through the application of marketing strategies and strategic planning.
The paper first differentiates marketing from sales or promotion and then describes the ability of a marketing program to attract new consumers and to…. In an electric power day-ahead market , market prices are not always cleared at marginal cost caused by the strategic bidding of generators. This paper presents the results of day-ahead market simulation that analyzes profits depending upon bidding strategies in an electric power day-ahead market.
It is clarified that MCP Market Clearing Price is easily managed by only one player and does not easily decline after it has gone up once. Moreover the mutual interference among day-ahead markets , future markets , increase of generators, etc.
Market behavior and performance of different strategy evaluation schemes. This study investigates how the strategy evaluation schemes adopted by agents affect their performance in conjunction with the market circumstances. We observe the performance of three strategy evaluation schemes, the history-dependent wealth game, the trend-opposing minority game, and the trend-following majority game, in a stock market where the price is exogenously determined.
The wealth game, as it learns from the history, shows relatively good performance unless the market is highly unpredictable. The majority game is successful in a trendy market dominated by long periods of sustained price increase or decrease. On the other hand, the minority game is suitable for a market with persistent zigzag price patterns. We also discuss the consequence of implementing finite memory in the scoring processes of strategies.
Our findings suggest under which market circumstances each evaluation scheme is appropriate for modeling the behavior of real market traders. Strategy evaluation schemes are a crucial factor in any agent-based market model, as they determine the agents' strategy preferences and consequently their behavioral pattern. Each scheme's success is quantified by average wealth accumulated by the traders equipped with the scheme.
Simulation of trading strategies in the electricity market. The main objective of the energy market existence is reduction of the total cost of production, transport and distribution of energy, and so the prices paid by terminal consumers. Energy market contains few markets that are varying on operational rules, the important segments: the Futures Contract Market and Next Day Market are analyzed in presented approach.
The computer system was developed to simulate the Polish Energy Market. This system use the multi-agent approach, where each agent is the separate shared library with defined interface. The software was used to compare strategies for players in energy market , where the strategies uses auto-regression, k-nearest neighbours, neural network and mixed algorithm, to predict the next price.
About the development strategies of power plant in energy market. The paper aims at identifying and assessing the revenues and costs incurred by various modernization and modernization-development strategies for a power plant in order to optimize the electric and thermal energy are produced and to conduct a sensitivity analysis of the main performance indicators. The Romanian energy system and the energy market have gone a long transition way, from the vertically integrated model, the responsibility for the delivery of the electricity comes exclusively to a state monopoly, to a decentralized system, characterized by the decentralization of production and transport, respectively distribution activities.
Romania chose the liberal market model where the relations between the actors in the market - producers and suppliers free to make sales and purchase transactions for electrical energy - are mostly governed by contracts, which may be either bilaterally negotiated or are already regulated. Therefore, the importance of understanding the development trend of the Romanian energy market lies in its economic effects upon the solutions which could be adopted for the evolution of the cogeneration power plant in question.
Creating a market strategy for 'brand loyalty'. A healthcare organization's financial well-being stems from sound strategic planning, which increasingly requires the merger of marketing intelligence and financial management expertise. As a participant in strategic planning, a hospital's chief financial officer CFO ensures that plans achieve organizational goals for growth and return on investment.
CFOs can apply their analytical and measurement skills to help determine areas of strength and potential growth, then match those services to market segments. Organizational performance, Marketing strategy , and Financial strategic alignment: an empirical study on Iranian pharmaceutical firms. Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company. It is presumed that assimilating the strategies could have positive contribution to business performance, in this regard alignment between marketing strategy and financial strategy seems to be the most important strategies being studied.
An empirical work in generic pharmaceutical manufacturing companies for evaluating effect of alignment between these two functions on organizational performance was developed in this paper. For analysis, a series of one-way ANOVAs as a collection of statistical models within marketing strategies considering financial strategy as independent variable and the three performance measures as dependent variables was used.
Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Q tubing's rate were 2. Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their financial strategy. Background Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company.
Results Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Conclusion Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their financial.
The study compared effects of two direct-mail educational software marketing strategies : 1 brochure only and 2 brochure and sample program provided by a journal. Those responding to Strategy 1 rated the programs higher because of less knowledge. However, those responding to Strategy 2 exhibited more respect for the journal.
Pockets of opportunity: multicultural marketing strategies for BEP growth. Ranked among the 50 largest food service corporations in America, the Randolph-Sheppard Business Enterprise Program BEP represents a challenging and rewarding career opportunity for Americans who are legally blind. In recent years, however, the number of facilities and facility managers has declined. Multicultural consumers represent a major emerging growth market. The multicultural market is one of the most overlooked retail markets in the United States--and the one with the most buying power and growth potential.
Multicultural marketing is among the least understood strategies available to facility managers, vocational rehabilitation counselors and BEP directors. Four major minority markets are discussed and marketing strategies are offered to help BEPs target and serve these unique consumers. Discusses the Stock Market Game in which teams of students buy and sell stocks.
Reviews information on the costs and benefits of the game and its uses. Examines game strategies through the economics of capital markets. Concludes that substantial costs in class time may be outweighed by benefits in some classroom situations. Family and Consumer Sciences Marketing Strategies. Family and consumer sciences teachers agree-- word-of-mouth is a great way to market the programs, as peers are very influential in students' selection of electives in family and consumer sciences FACS education.
However, teachers do not rely solely on their students to influence enrollments in their programs. In this article, the author…. Marketing : A Strategy for Institutional Renewal. In December a marketing process was implemented at Prince George's Community College Maryland as part of an institutional response to external forces--such as new emphases on life-long learning and equal opportunity, and declining fiscal support--and internal forces, including changing student demographics, enrollments and interests, and….
The latest wave of reform in urban schools, led by the venture philanthropists, has made a great deal of change, without much progress. Foundations with a venture philanthropy bent, like the Walton Family Foundation, the Gates Foundation, and the Broad Foundation, say market principles, such as choice and competition, will improve schools. A University of Western Australia market segmentation study for the masters program in business administration examined the relationship between Graduate Management Admission Test scores, work experience, faculty of undergraduate degree, gender, and academic success in the program.
Implications of the results for establishing admission criteria…. Volume 1. In response to a changing environment characterized by economic uncertainty, a declining population, heavy competition, and rising costs, Wayne County Community College WCCC developed a market strategy plan to more effectively position and publicize the college.
The three main objectives of the plan were to identify WCCC's market segment,…. Effective strategies for developing the affective work competencies of marketing education students include teaching procedures, acquisition of skills and materials for teaching in the affective domain, and implementation considerations. Affective concerns in marketing can be grouped into three broad types of performance categories--self-concept,….
Marketing strategies of hospital service organizations in Nigeria: a study of selected privately owned hospitals in Port Harcourt. This study was centered on the identification of the marketing strategies of hospitals and the factors that militate against their effective adoption and implementation.
A total of 80 hospitals in Port Harcourt responded to a structured questionnaire administered on them. It was found, among other things, that many hospital organizations apply marketing strategies , and that hospitals that adopt effective marketing strategies perform better than those that do not. Some of the factors militating against the effective adoption and implementation of marketing strategies include lack of planning, lack of top management support, and non-utilization of all the promotional mix elements.
Decisions made in our everyday lives are based on a wide variety of information so it is generally very difficult to assess what are the strategies that guide us. Stock market provides a rich environment to study how people make decisions since responding to market uncertainty needs a constant update of these strategies. For this purpose, we run a lab-in-the-field experiment where volunteers are given a controlled set of financial information -based on real data from worldwide financial indices- and they are required to guess whether the market price would go "up" or "down" in each situation.
From the data collected we explore basic statistical traits, behavioural biases and emerging strategies. In particular, we detect unintended patterns of behavior through consistent actions, which can be interpreted as Market Imitation and Win-Stay Lose-Shift emerging strategies , with Market Imitation being the most dominant. We also observe that these strategies are affected by external factors: the expert advice, the lack of information or an information overload reinforce the use of these intuitive strategies , while the probability to follow them significantly decreases when subjects spends more time to make a decision.
The cohort analysis shows that women and children are more prone to use such strategies although their performance is not undermined. Our results are of interest for better handling clients expectations of trading companies, to avoid behavioural anomalies in financial analysts decisions and to improve not only the design of markets but also the trading digital interfaces where information is set down.
Strategies and behavioural biases observed can also be translated into new agent based modelling or stochastic price dynamics to better understand financial bubbles or the effects of asymmetric risk perception to price drops. Four motivations for charitable giving: implications for marketing strategy to attract monetary donations for medical research. Medical research foundations can compete more effectively for charitable dollars by being aware of motivations for giving when designing marketing strategy.
The study tests the extent to which the motives of reciprocity, income, career, and self-esteem predict monetary giving to medical research. The results indicate that reciprocity and income motives are significant predictors of giving, as are household assets and age.
Interpretation of these results leads to several suggestions for marketing strategy. Social marketing as a strategy to increase immunization rates. Today in the United States, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable disease are often traced to susceptible children whose parents have claimed an exemption from school or child care immunization regulations. The origins of this immunization hesitancy and resistance have roots in the decline of the threat of vaccine-preventable disease coupled with an increase in concerns about the adverse effects of vaccines, the emergence of mass media and the Internet, and the intrinsic limitations of modern medicine.
Appeals to emotion have drowned out thoughtful discussion in public forums, and overall, public trust in immunizations has declined. We present an often overlooked behavior change strategy -social marketing -as a way to improve immunization rates by addressing the important roots of immunization hesitancy and effectively engaging emotions.
As an example, we provide a synopsis of a social marketing campaign that is currently in development in Washington state and that is aimed at increasing timely immunizations in children from birth to age 24 months. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities. The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West.
Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question Deer Haven establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position.
After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application. Marketing strategy : a key leverage point for dietitians. The time is right for planned change in the profession of dietetics. The concept of the nutrition support team offers the clinical dietitian a means of increasing the visibility and effectiveness of dietetic services.
Dietitians must take advantage of the renewed interest in nutrition and intervene assertively to improve nutritional care through role expansion. By focusing on a systematic marketing strategy to expand their current role, dietitians can become proactive participants in role change, rather than reactive victims to changes dictated by others.
When goals, objectives, and plans are made explicit, definite progress toward desired role changes can be recognized. This case study demonstrates that this change in role is possible within the present state of health case systems and that physicians are willing and even eager to allow dietitians to assume a high degree of responsibility for nutritional care.
New strategies to improve food marketing to children. Federal efforts to address the impact of food marketing on children began more than thirty years ago, when the Federal Trade Commission sought comment on strategies to reduce young children's exposure to food advertising. The food, advertising, and television industries mounted a virulent response, and Congress withdrew the commission's authority to regulate unfair advertising to children.
The same industries and Congress responded equally aggressively to the proposed nutrition criteria for food products marketed to children drafted by a working group of federal agencies in Although federal efforts over the past thirty years have led to modest improvements in food quality and marketing practices, commercial interests have consistently overridden the health concerns of children. Mobilization of parents as a political force to improve standards for food marketed to children, use of social media for counteradvertising, and the development of new technologies to decrease exposure to food advertisements could reduce the impact of food marketing to children.
Consumer product branding strategy and the marketing of physicians' services. Hospitals have traditionally maintained physician referral programs as a means of attracting physicians to their network of affiliated providers. The advent of managed care and impending healthcare reform has altered the relationship of hospitals and physicians.
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