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Any comparable temperature increase from another cause would produce the same calculated outcome. Thus, the 3,year temperature record illustrated in Figure 1 also provides a test of the computer models. The historical temperature record shows that the Earth has previously warmed far more than could be caused by CO2 itself. Since these past warming cycles have not initiated water-vapor-mediated atmospheric warming catastrophes, it is evident that weaker effects from CO2 cannot do so.
Methane is also a minor greenhouse gas. World CH4 levels are, as shown in Figure 20, leveling off. In the U. The total amount of CH4 produced from these U. Moreover, the record shows that, even while methane was increasing, temperature trends were benign. There are no empirical records that verify either these models or their flawed predictions Claims 97 of an epidemic of insect-borne diseases, extensive species extinction, catastrophic flooding of Pacific islands, ocean acidification, increased numbers and severities of hurricanes and tornados, and increased human heat deaths from the 0.
The "human-caused global warming" hypothesis and the computer calculations that support it are in error. They have no empirical support and are invalidated by numerous observations. What steps could mankind take if solar activity or other effects began to shift the Earth toward temperatures too cold or too warm for optimum human life?
First, it would be necessary to determine what temperature humans feel is optimum. It is unlikely that the chosen temperature would be exactly that which we have today. Second, we would be fortunate if natural forces were to make the Earth too warm rather than too cold because we can cool the Earth with relative ease.
We have no means by which to warm it. Attempting to warm the Earth with addition of CO2 or to cool the Earth by restrictions of CO2 and hydrocarbon use would, however, be futile. Neither would work. Inexpensively blocking the sun by means of particles in the upper atmosphere would be effective.
Penner, A. Schneider, and E. Kennedy have proposed 98 that the exhaust systems of commercial airliners could be tuned in such a way as to eject particulate sun-blocking material into the upper atmosphere. Later, Edward Teller similarly suggested 18 that particles could be injected into the atmosphere in order to reduce solar heating and cool the Earth. Both methods use particles so small that they would be invisible from the Earth.
These methods would be effective and economical in blocking solar radiation and reducing atmospheric and surface temperatures. There are other similar proposals World energy rationing, on the other hand, would not work. The climate of the Earth is now benign. If temperatures become too warm, this can easily be corrected.
This would help humanity adapt and might lead to new mitigation technology. At ultimate equilibrium with the ocean and other reservoirs there will probably be very little increase. The current rise is a non-equilibrium result of the rate of approach to equilibrium. One reservoir that would moderate the increase is especially important. Plant life provides a large sink for CO2. Using current knowledge about the increased growth rates of plants and assuming increased CO2 release as compared to current emissions, it has been estimated that atmospheric CO2 levels may rise to about ppm before leveling off.
At that level, CO2 absorption by increased Earth biomass is able to absorb about 10 Gt C per year At present, this absorption is estimated to be about 3 Gt C per year As atmospheric CO2 increases, plant growth rates increase. Also, leaves transpire less and lose less water as CO2 increases, so that plants are able to grow under drier conditions. Animal life, which depends upon plant life for food, increases proportionally. Figures 21 to 24 show examples of experimentally measured increases in the growth of plants.
These examples are representative of a very large research literature on this subject As Figure 21 shows, long-lived 1, to 2,year-old pine trees have shown a sharp increase in growth during the past half-century. Much of this increase is due to the increase in atmospheric CO2 that has already occurred. In addition, it has been reported that Amazonian rain forests are increasing their vegetation by about pounds of carbon per acre per year , or approximately 2 tons of biomass per acre per year.
Trees respond to CO2 fertilization more strongly than do most other plants, but all plants respond to some extent. Since plant response to CO2 fertilization is nearly linear with respect to CO2 concentration over the range from to ppm, as seen in Figure 23, experimental measurements at different levels of CO2 enrichment can be extrapolated. This has been done in Figure 24 in order to illustrate CO2 growth enhancements calculated for the atmospheric increase of about 88 ppm that has already taken place and those expected from a projected total increase of ppm.
Wheat growth is accelerated by increased atmospheric CO2, especially under dry conditions. Figure 24 shows the response of wheat grown under wet conditions versus that of wheat stressed by lack of water. The underlying data is from open-field experiments. Wheat was grown in the usual way, but the atmospheric CO2 concentrations of circular sections of the fields were increased by arrays of computer-controlled equipment that released CO2 into the air to hold the levels as specified , The relative growth enhancement of trees by CO2 diminishes with age.
Figure 24 shows young trees. Figure 23 summarizes experiments in which plants of various types were raised under CO2-enhanced conditions. The selections of species in Figure 23 were biased toward plants that respond less to CO2 fertilization than does the mixture actually covering the Earth, so Figure 23 underestimates the effects of global CO2 enhancement. Clearly, the green revolution in agriculture has already benefitted from CO2 fertilization, and benefits in the future will be even greater.
Animal life is increasing proportionally, as shown by studies of 51 terrestrial and 22 aquatic ecosystems Atmospheric CO2 is required for life by both plants and animals. It is the sole source of carbon in all of the protein, carbohydrate, fat, and other organic molecules of which living things are constructed. Plants extract carbon from atmospheric CO2 and are thereby fertilized.
Animals obtain their carbon from plants. Without atmospheric CO2, none of the life we see on Earth would exist. Water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are the three most important substances that make life possible. They are surely not environmental pollutants.
Industrial conversion of energy into forms that are useful for human activities is the most important aspect of technology. Abundant inexpensive energy is required for the prosperous maintenance of human life and the continued advance of life-enriching technology. People who are prosperous have the wealth required to protect and enhance their natural environment. Currently, the United States is a net importer of energy as shown in Figure Political calls for a reduction of U.
Despite enormous tax subsidies over the past 30 years, green sources still provide only 0. Yet, the U. It should, instead, be a net exporter of energy. There are no climatological impediments to increased use of hydrocarbons, although local environmental effects can and must be accommodated. Nuclear energy is, in fact, less expensive and more environmentally benign than hydrocarbon energy, but it too has been the victim of the politics of fear and claimed disadvantages and dangers that are actually negligible.
For example, the "problem" of high-level "nuclear waste" has been given much attention, but this problem has been politically created by U. Spent nuclear fuel can be recycled into new nuclear fuel. It need not be stored in expensive repositories. Reactor accidents are also much publicized, but there has never been even one human death associated with an American nuclear reactor incident.
By contrast, American dependence on automobiles results in more than 40, human deaths per year. All forms of energy generation, including "green" methods, entail industrial deaths in the mining, manufacture, and transport of resources they require.
Nuclear energy requires the smallest amount of such resources and therefore has the lowest risk of deaths. Estimated relative costs of electrical energy production vary with geographical location and underlying assumptions. Figure 26 shows a recent British study, which is typical. To be sure, future inventions in energy technology may alter the relative economics of nuclear, hydrocarbon, solar, wind, and other methods of energy generation.
These inventions cannot, however, be forced by political fiat, nor can they be wished into existence. Alternatively, "conservation," if practiced so extensively as to be an alternative to hydrocarbon and nuclear power, is merely a politically correct word for "poverty. Energy is produced by private industry. Why then has energy production thrived abroad while domestic production has stagnated? This stagnation has been caused by United States government taxation, regulation, and sponsorship of litigation, which has made the U.
In addition, the U. It is not necessary to discern in advance the best course to follow. Legislative repeal of taxation, regulation, incentives to litigation, and repeal of all subsidies of energy generation industries would stimulate industrial development, wherein competition could then automatically determine the best paths. Nuclear power is safer, less expensive, and more environmentally benign than hydrocarbon power, so it is probably the better choice for increased energy production.
Solid, liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels provide, however, many conveniences, and a national infrastructure to use them is already in place. Oil from shale or coal liquefaction is less expensive than crude oil at current prices, but its ongoing production costs are higher than those for already developed oil fields.
There is, therefore, an investment risk that crude oil prices could drop so low that liquefaction plants could not compete. Nuclear energy does not have this disadvantage, since the operating costs of nuclear power plants are very low. Figure 27 illustrates, as an example, one practical and environmentally sound path to U. If this were increased by GWe, nuclear power could fill all current U.
Moreover, if heat from additional nuclear reactors were used for coal liquefaction and gasification, the U. This heat could also liquify biomass, trash, or other sources of hydrocarbons that might eventually prove practical. The Palo Verde nuclear power station near Phoenix, Arizona, was originally intended to have 10 nuclear reactors with a generating capacity of 1, megawatts each.
This installation is sited on 4, acres of land and is cooled by waste water from the city of Phoenix, which is a few miles away. An area of 4, acres is 6. The power station itself occupies only a small part of this total area.
Nuclear technology has advanced substantially since Palo Verde was built, so plants constructed today would be even more reliable and efficient. Construction costs could be repaid in just a few years by the capital now spent by the people of the United States for foreign oil and by the change from U.
The 50 nuclear installations might be sited on a population basis. If so, California would have six, while Oregon and Idaho together would have one. In view of the great economic value of these facilities, there would be vigorous competition for them. In addition to these power plants, the U. This would lower fuel cost and eliminate the storage of high-level nuclear waste.
Fuel for the reactors can be assured for 1, years by using both ordinary reactors with high breeding ratios and specific breeder reactors, so that more fuel is produced than consumed. The heat from a 1, MWe reactor can produce 38, barrels of coal-derived oil per day This is twice the oil production of Saudi Arabia.
Current proven coal reserves of the United States are sufficient to sustain this production for years This liquified coal exceeds the proven oil reserves of the entire world. The reactors could produce gaseous hydrocarbons from coal, too. The remaining heat from nuclear power plants could warm air or water for use in indoor climate control and other purposes.
Nuclear reactors can also be used to produce hydrogen, instead of oil and gas , The current cost of production and infrastructure is, however, much higher for hydrogen than for oil and gas. Technological advance reduces cost, but usually not abruptly. A prescient call in for the world to change from wood to methane would have been impracticably ahead of its time, as may be a call today for an abrupt change from oil and gas to hydrogen.
In distinguishing the practical from the futuristic, a free market in energy is absolutely essential. Surely these are better outcomes than are available through international rationing and taxation of energy as has been recently proposed 82,83,97, This nuclear energy example demonstrates that current technology can produce abundant inexpensive energy if it is not politically suppressed.
There need be no vast government program to achieve this goal. It could be reached simply by legislatively removing all taxation, most regulation and litigation, and all subsidies from all forms of energy production in the U. With abundant and inexpensive energy, American industry could be revitalized, and the capital and energy required for further industrial and technological advance could be assured. Also assured would be the continued and increased prosperity of all Americans.
The people of the United States need more low-cost energy, not less. If this energy is produced in the United States, it can not only become a very valuable export, but it can also ensure that American industry remains competitive in world markets and that hoped-for American prosperity continues and grows.
In this hope, Americans are not alone. Across the globe, billions of people in poorer nations are struggling to improve their lives. These people need abundant low-cost energy, which is the currency of technological progress. In newly developing countries, that energy must come largely from the less technologically complicated hydrocarbon sources.
It is a moral imperative that this energy be available. Otherwise, the efforts of these peoples will be in vain, and they will slip backwards into lives of poverty, suffering, and early death. Energy is the foundation of wealth. Inexpensive energy allows people to do wonderful things.
For example, there is concern that it may become difficult to grow sufficient food on the available land. Crops grow more abundantly in a warmer, higher CO2 environment, so this can mitigate future problems that may arise Energy provides, however, an even better food insurance plan.
Energy-intensive hydroponic greenhouses are 2, times more productive per unit land area than are modern American farming methods Therefore, if energy is abundant and inexpensive, there is no practical limit to world food production. Fresh water is also believed to be in short supply. With plentiful inexpensive energy, sea water desalination can provide essentially unlimited supplies of fresh water.
During the past years, human ingenuity in the use of energy has produced many technological miracles. These advances have markedly increased the quality, quantity, and length of human life. Technologists of the 21st century need abundant, inexpensive energy with which to continue this advance. Were this bright future to be prevented by world energy rationing, the result would be tragic indeed. In addition to human loss, the Earth's environment would be a major victim of such a mistake.
Inexpensive energy is essential to environmental health. Prosperous people have the wealth to spare for environmental preservation and enhancement. Poor, impoverished people do not. There is no reason to limit human production of CO2, CH4, and other minor greenhouse gases as has been proposed 82,83,97, We also need not worry about environmental calamities even if the current natural warming trend continues.
The Earth has been much warmer during the past 3, years without catastrophic effects. Warmer weather extends growing seasons and generally improves the habitability of colder regions. As coal, oil, and natural gas are used to feed and lift from poverty vast numbers of people across the globe, more CO2 will be released into the atmosphere.
This will help to maintain and improve the health, longevity, prosperity, and productivity of all people. The United States and other countries need to produce more energy, not less. The most practical, economical, and environmentally sound methods available are hydrocarbon and nuclear technologies. Human use of coal, oil, and natural gas has not harmfully warmed the Earth, and the extrapolation of current trends shows that it will not do so in the foreseeable future.
The CO2 produced does, however, accelerate the growth rates of plants and also permits plants to grow in drier regions. Animal life, which depends upon plants, also flourishes, and the diversity of plant and animal life is increased. Human activities are producing part of the rise in CO2 in the atmosphere. Mankind is moving the carbon in coal, oil, and natural gas from below ground to the atmosphere, where it is available for conversion into living things.
We are living in an increasingly lush environment of plants and animals as a result of this CO2 increase. Our children will therefore enjoy an Earth with far more plant and animal life than that with which we now are blessed.
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The leisure style of Canadian rural recreation participants: An analysis based on three different rural leisure settings. Parks and the urban heat island: A longitudinal study in Westfield, Massachusetts. The impact of park development on the lives of local inhabitants within Gros Morne National Park. An application of importance-performance analysis to recreational storm chasing. Big game hunting practices, meanings, motivations and constraints: a survey of Oregon big game hunters.
Perceived community benefits from recreation resources: From scale development to validation. Purchase decision involvement: Event management segments and related event behavior. Enjoying green cities: Assessing visitors' attitude and preferences of urban forests in Washington, D. Determinates of clustering across America's national parks: An application of the Gini coefficients. Korean American males' interracial contact experiences during serious leisure activity. Perceptions of relative attractiveness of nature-based tourism assets: A comparison between CVB directors and visitors.
Recreation partnerships on national forests: The influences of institutional commitment and urban proximity on agency capacity. Perceptions of public forest managers concerning trail use by off-highway vehicle riders in the northeast United States. Place attachment and recreation demand on the west branch of the Farmington River.
Australian community members' attitudes toward climate change impacts at the Great Barrier Reef. Differences in reported satisfaction ratings by consumptive and nonconsumptive recreationists: A comparative analysis of three decades of research. Climate change and environmentally responsible behavior on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Roadside camping on forest preserve lands in the Adirondack Park: A qualitative exploration of place attachment and resource substitutability.
Reinventing "retrotels": using engaged scholarship to market nostalgia tourism in rural New Hampshire. Studying the effects of management practices on Ailanthus populations in Ohio forests: A research update. Comparison of fecundity and survival of hemlock woolly adelgid Hemiptera: Adelgidae in northern and southern populations. North American host tree response to Amylostereum areolatum , the fungal symbiont of the woodwasp Sirex noctilio.
Relative potencies of gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus genotypes isolated from Gypchek. Asian longhorned beetle ALB Anoplophora gabripennis : advancements in the eradication program. The Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health: tools and information available to support invasive species and forest health education.
Knight, Kathleen S. Long-term weather variability and shifting distribution limits of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae Annand. Multitrophic effects of calcium availability on invasive alien plants, birds, and bird prey items. Potential for using Verticillium albo-atrum as a biocontrol agent for tree-of-heaven Ailanthus altissima. Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi Hymenoptera: Eulophidae , a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer Coleoptera: Buprestidae.
Progress in understanding the ecology and detection of Sirex noctilio. Ayres, Matthew P. Update on exotic ash collection for hybrid breeding and survey for EAB-resistance in native North American species. Mason, Mary E. Invasion genetics of emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Recovery of Bacillus thuringiensis and related spore-forming bacteria from soil after application for gypsy moth control.
Identification of a nucleopolyhedrovirus in winter moth populations from Massachusetts. What does "local" firewood buy you? Managing the risk of invasive species introduction. Screening for Phytophthora cinnamomi in reclaimed mined lands targeted for American chestnut restoration projects.
Disjunct population of redbay ambrosia beetle and laurel wilt disease discovered in Mississippi. Development of restriction enzyme analyses to distinguish winter moth from bruce spanworm and hybrids between them. Histochemical study of lectin binding sites in fourth and fifth instar gypsy moth larval midgut epithelium. Assessment of an apparently isolated population of emerald ash borer in upper Michigan.
Multi-state comparison of trapping tools at sites with low emerald ash borer density. Demonstrating the benefits of phytosanitary regulations: the case of ISPM Brockerhoff, Eckehard G. Comparative analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin binding to gypsy moth, browntail moth, and douglas-fir tussock moth midgut tissue sections using fluorescence microscopy. Is Ips grandicollis disrupting the biological control of Sirex noctilio in Australia?
Aerial application of the insect-killing fungus Lecanicillium muscarium in a microfactory formulation for hemlock woolly adelgid suppression. Community and ecosystem consequences of Microstegium vimineum invasions in eastern forests. Attractants for longhorn beetles in the southeastern U.
Protecting America's economy, environment, health, and security against invasive species requires a strong federal program in systematic biology. Forestry-related pathways for the movement of exotic plant pests into and within the greater Caribbean region. Going with your gut: insights into nutrition and digestion in Sirex noctilio woodwasps at emergence. Survival of Bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth Lymantria dispar larvae is correlated with production of urease.
Using a multicriteria risk model to guide ground surveys for emerald ash borer. Adapting nematode-based biological control systems to North American populations of Sirex noctilio. Distribution and biology of native siricidae and associated hymenopteran parasitoid species in the southeastern United States.
Barnes, Brittany F. Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of exotic earthworms in the Huron Mountain Club, Upper Peninsula, Michigan. Shartell, Lindsey M. Economic analysis of light brown apple moth using GIS and quantitative modeling. Establishment and spread of Microstegium vimineum Japanese stiltgrass in closed-canopy forests.
Comparison of protein profiles of beech bark disease-resistant or beech bark disease-susceptible American beech. Hemlock woolly adelgid biological control: molecular methods to distinguish Laricobius nigrinus, L. Synergistic effect of dual imidacloprid- Metarhizium anisopliae applications against Asian longhorned beetles Anoplophora glabripennis. Use of unwounded ash trees for the detection of emerald ash borer adults: EAB landing behavior.
Poland, Therese M. Community ash densities and economic impact potential of emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis in four midwestern states. Hourly and seasonable variation in catch of winter moths and bruce spanworm in pheromone-baited traps. Managing Sirex noctilio populations in Patagonia Argentina : silviculture and biological control.
Thousand cankers pathway assessment: movement of Geosmithia sp. Microbial acrobats: tracking the whereabouts of forest Phytophthora species. Prospects for long-term ash survival in the core emerald ash borer mortality zone. Pissodes castaneus De Geer, Coleoptera: Curculionidae , the bark pine weevil: a pest or a biological indicator? Effects of host wood moisture on the life cycle development of the Asian longhorned beetle.
Behavior and ecology of exotic and native siricids and their hymenopteran parasitoids in southern pine stands. Gandhi, Kamal J. Host resistance screening for balsam woolly adelgid: early results from 12 fir species. Scanning electron microscopy as a tool in understanding hemlock woolly adelgid biology, feeding behavior, and host plant resistance.
Eradication of an exotic ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky , in Oregon. The goldspotted oak borer: an overview of a research program for "California's Emerald Ash Borer". Detection of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis , at low population density.
An update on the status and management of the Sirex woodwasp in South Africa. Putative source of the invasive Sirex noctilio fungal symbiont, Amylostereum areolatum , in the eastern United States and its association with native siricid woodwasps. Asian longhorned beetle, over the river and through the woods: habitat-dependent population spread. Visitation rates to the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore and the introduction of the non-native species Lymantria dispar L.
Hitchikers on international trade routes: estimating the probabilities of introduction and establishment of Asian gypsy moth with GLS-2d. Development of an artificial diet for winter moth, Operophtera brumata. Characterizing pathways of invasion using Sternorryhncha on imported plant material in cargo.
Laboratory observations of Sirex noctilio : pursuing an effective behavioral bioassay. Bark beetle Polygraphus proximus : a new aggressive far eastern invader on Abies species in Siberia and European Russia. Walnut twig beetle: update on the biology and chemical ecology of a vector of an invasive fatal disease of walnut in the western U. The mountain pine beetle: causes and consequences of an unprecedented outbreak. Notes on the biology of Scymnus Pullus coniferarum : an adelgid predator.
Composition of high-elevation breeding bird assemblages and environmental correlates in the southern Blue Ridge Province. Mountain birdwatch: developing a coordinated monitoring program for high-elevation birds in the Atlantic northern forest. The current distribution, predictive modeling, and restoration potential of red spruce in West Virginia. American chestnut persistence in southwestern Virginia 80 years after chestnut blight introduction. Status and conservation of northern goshawks in the central Appalachian mountains: has the population trend reversed since ?
A framework for addressing bird conservation priorities in high-elevation vegetation communities of the Appalachian Mountains. Evidence of montane spruce-fir forest recovery on the high peaks and ridges of the black mountains, North Carolina: recent trends, The current status of red spruce in the eastern United States: distribution, population trends, and environmental drivers. Vegetation controls on carbon and nitrogen cycling and retention: contrasts in spruce and hardwood watershed budgets.
Forest change in high-elevation forests of Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina: re-census and analysis of data collected over 40 years. Foliar and soil chemistry at red spruce sites in the Monongahela National Forest. Natural communities of the central Appalachian red spruce ecosystem and their conservation significance. Detecting and monitoring acidic deposition effects on soil chemistry and forest growth on the Monongahela National Forest. Maintenance of eastern hemlock forests: Factors associated with hemlock vulnerability to hemlock woolly adelgid.
Predicting climate change extirpation risk for central and southern Appalachian forest tree species. Changes in canopy cover alter surface air and forest floor temperature in a high-elevation red spruce Picea rubens Sarg. Area occupancy and detection probabilities of the Virginia northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus using nest-box surveys. Species distribution and richness patterns of avian communities in the high-elevation forests of Virginia.
Stand dynamics of relict red spruce in the Alarka Creek headwaters, North Carolina. Characterization of the ecological requirements for three plethodontid salamander species. Mapping the current and potential distribution of red spruce in Virginia: implications for the restoration of degraded high elevation habitat. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of fraser fir in a temperate mountain cloud forest. Growth of American chestnut and incidence of chestnut blight in the forest understory.
Acidic deposition and red spruce in the central and southern Appalachians, past and present. Brook trout movement within a high-elevation watershed: Consequences for watershed restoration. Hermit thrush breeding range expansion and habitat preferences in the southern Appalachian high-elevation forests. Wet feet and sappy fingers: lessons learned from restoration work in the West Virginia highlands.
Modeling the breeding habitat distribution of the Appalachian yellow-bellied sapsucker in North Carolina. A comparison of the status of spruce in high-elevation forests on public and private land in the southern and central Appalachian Mountains. Influence of acid deposition on regeneration dynamics along a disturbance intensity gradient. The National Audubon Society's eastern forest conservation initiative: examining opportunities for bird conservation at a regional scale.
Balsam fir conservation and red spruce ecosystem restoration initiatives in the West Virginia highlands. Historical reconstructions of high-elevation spruce forests in the Appalachian mountains. Ecophysiology of seedling establishment in contrasting spruce-fir forests of southern Appalachian and Rocky Mountain ecotones, USA. Bird conservation issues in high-elevation red spruce-fraser fir-northern hardwood forests of the southern Blue Ridge.
Update on terrestrial ecological classification in the highlands of West Virginia. Potential impacts of climate change on bird and tree habitats within the Appalachian Mountains. Abundance of red spruce regeneration across spruce-hardwood ecotones at Gaudineer Knob, West Virginia. Early red spruce regeneration and release studies in the central and southern Appalachians. Evolutionary history and population genetics of fraser fir and intermediate fir, southern Appalachian endemic conifers imperiled by an exotic pest and climate change.
Altitudinal gradients of bryophyte diversity and community assemblage in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests. Species composition and stand structure of a large red spruce planting 67 years after its establishment in western North Carolina. Factors influencing avian communities in high-elevation southern Allegheny mountain forests.
Disruption of calcium nutrition at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest New Hampshire alters the health and productivity of red spruce and sugar maple trees and provides lessons pertinent to other sites and regions. Pennsylvania boreal conifer forests and their bird communities: past, present, and potential.
Using environmental and site-specific variables to model current and potential distribution of red spruce forest habitat in West Virginia. Seeing the bigger picture: multi-partner spruce restoration in the central and southern Appalachian mountains.
Economic assessment of potential emerald ash borer damage in urban areas in the United States. Microimaging of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin-binding proteins in gypsy moth larval gut using confocal fluorescence microscopy.
Emerald ash borer biological control: rearing, releasing, establishment, and efficacy of parasitoids. Characterization of microsatellite loci for Laricobius nigrinus and L rubidus , predators of adelgids in North America. Activity and persistence of systemic insecticides for managing hemlock woolly adelgids. Volatile profiles and trap catches of two pine-host species of Sirex noctilio.
Fuester, R. Using Asian longhorned beetle male-produced pheromone and host volatiles for monitoring. Slowing ash mortality: a potential strategy to slam emerald ash borer in outlier sites. Scymnus Pullus coniferarum Coleoptera: Coccinellidae : an adelgid predator native to the western United States.
Optimization of visual trapping methodology for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis. Francese, Joseph A. Fine structure of antennal sensilla in emerald ash borer Coleoptera: Buprestidae. Why cage a tree? Use of whole-tree enclosures to assess introduced predators of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae. Genetics and conservation of hemlock species threatened by the hemlock woolly adelgid. Development of a web-based tool for projecting costs of managing emerald ash borer in municipal forests.
Havill, Nathan P. Striking gold in southern California: discovery of the goldspotted oak borer and its central role in oak mortality. Parasitoids attacking emerald ash borers in western Pennsylvania and their potential use in biological control. Can the exotic brown spruce longhorn beetle, Tetropium fuscum , successfully colonize healthy trees in Canada? Update on EAB biocontrol: release and recovery of Spathius agrili and discovery of new potential biocontrol agents in Asia.
Biological control of Sirex noctilio in North America by Beddingia siricidicola : update. Field trapping the Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis in Ningxia, China, using host volatiles and compounds isolated from virgin female beetles. Implication of global climate change on the distribution and activity of Phytophthora ramorum.
Impact of Chinese privet and its removal on pollinator diversity and abundance. Field persistence and efficacy of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis. Herms, Daniel A. Manipulating spread and predicting dispersal of isolated emerald ash borer populations. Effects of emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis on forest ecosystems. A model for the spread of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis , in recently colonized sites. Cold tolerance and host range comparisons between coastal and inland western United States populations of Laricobius nigrinus.
Natural infections of Beauveria bassiana in Agrilus planipennis populations in Michigan. Ailanthus, tree-of-heaven update, a northeast regional biological control project. Salom, Scott M. Simulating the impacts of altered fire regimes and landscape structure on the invasion of Paulownia tomentosa in the Southern Appalachians.
Effects of lure composition and release rate on catch of EDRR target species and other forest coleoptera. Chemical and proteomic approaches to dissecting ash resistance to the emerald ash borer. Comparison of emerald ash borer preference for ash of different species, sun exposure, age, and stress treatments in relation to foliar volatiles and nutrition.
Factors that influence emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis adult longevity and oviposition under laboratory conditions. Foliage feeding tests of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti Harold Coleoptera: Curculionidae , a potential biological control agent of the tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima.
Current status of Anoplophora Spp. Role of feces and effects of simulated rain on horizontal transmission of the microsporidium, Nosema lymantriae. Multigenerational dispersal of an introduced and native Laricobius species within eight hemlock woolly adelgid infested hemlock stands. Restoration of the American elm on the Chippewa National Forest through generation of Dutch elm disease tolerant, cold-hardy, and site-adapted trees.
Observer bias and the detection of low-density infestations: a case study with the hemlock woolly adelgid. Population dynamics of the felted beech scale and associated Neonectria species, causal agents of beech bark disease. The foliar chemistry dynamic in eastern hemlock and how it relates to the competitive mechanism between two invasive herbivores: Adelges tsugae and Fiorinia externa.
Japanese Laricobius sp n, a promising biological control candidate for hemlock woolly adelgid. Research update on the brown spruce longhorn beetle, Tetropium fuscum Fabr. Landscape-scale fire restoration on the big piney ranger district in the Ozark highlands of Arkansas. Smoke modeling in support of management of forest landscapes in the eastern United States. Fire history and the establishment of oaks and maples in second-growth forests.
Restoring oak ecosystems on national forest system lands in the eastern region: an adaptive management approach. Surface fire effects on conifer and hardwood crowns--applications of an integral plume model.
Red maple Acer rubrum response to prescribed burning on the William B. Bankhead National Forest, Alabama. Building a state prescribed fire program: experiences and lessons learned in Ohio. Airborne fire monitoring--extraction of active fire fronts from time-sequence imaging of the Arch Rock fire in southeast Ohio. Suciu, Loredana; Bova, Anthony S. Response of upland oak and co-occurring competitor seedlings following single and repeated prescribed fires.
Effects of overstory stand density and fire on ground layer vegetation in oak woodland and savanna habitats. Modeling the protection afforded by burrows, cavities, and roosts during wildland surface fires. Fire history and age structure analysis in the Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge, Minnesota: establishing reference conditions in a remnant oak savanna woodland.
Fire and fire surrogate study: annotated highlights from oak-dominated sites. Oak regeneration across a heterogeneous landscape in Ohio: some limited success after thinning, two fires, and seven years. Keeping our charm: residents, growth, and quality of life issues in a small but growing Texas coastal community. The spatial relationship between exurban development and designated wilderness lands in the contiguous United States.
The relationships between anglers' risk perception, sensation-seeking, and fishing site choice along the northeast and Yilan Coast Scenic Area, Taiwan. A comparison of agritourism and other farm entrepreneurs: implications for future tourism and sociological research on agritourism. Social factors shaping the formation of a multi-stakeholder trails network group for the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia.
Visitor perceptions of and support for management actions at an urban national historic site. Active transportation among elementary-aged students: walking or biking to and from school. Interrelationship of motivation for and perceived constraints to physical activity participation and the well-being of senior center participants. Local residents' attitudes toward potential tourism development: the case of Ansted, West Virginia. New England's travel and tourism markets: trends in geographic target markets beyond the 90s--the y2k decade.
Using destination image to predict visitors' intention to revisit three Hudson River Valley, New York, communities. An exploratory analysis of coping schemes used by paddlers who camped in the St. Regis Canoe Area, New York.
Behavioral intentions within off-highway vehicle communities in the northeastern U. Indicators and standards of quality across space and time, as reflected in a study in Acadian National Park, Maine. Perceptions of self-drive tourists along the Alaska-Canada border toward the increased security requirements of the western hemisphere travel initiative. The relationship between place bonding and social trust, as explored in a study in the Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas.
A comparison of motivations between island tourists visiting Penghu, Taiwan, and Phuket, Thailand. Bridging an interdisciplinary gap: a case for uniting tourism and urban planning for a consistent understanding of the. Values and motivations of private forest owners in the United States: a framework based on open-ended responses in the national woodland owner survey.
Northern Virginia wineries: understanding visitor motivations for market segmentation. Crowding at Cape Lookout National Seashore: an examination of the influence of visitor characteristics on encounter norms and perceived crowding. Exploring the crowding-satisfaction relationship between day and overnight users in the lower Colorado River Basin, Texas.
Listening to your audience: developing an educational tool to assist with recreation planning on private lands. An analysis of local stakeholder values for tropical protected areas in Madagascar. Finding Artemis: pathways for recruiting and constraints to retaining female hunters. Deer hunting and television: are tv shows creating expectations among deer hunters? Identifying the effects of cognitive, affective, and behavioral components on residents' attitudes toward place marketing.
Getting the engine started: motivations for participation in a university outdoor recreation program. The impact of a summer education program on the environmental attitudes and awareness of minority children. A conceptual model for developing mixed-species plantations in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Performance of four hardwoods on a good preharvested site, without weed control, treated with fire before planting and with and without tree shelter.
Oak research and technology transfer activities of the University of Tennessee's tree improvement program. Integrating a wood quality component with the Sylvan Stand Structure Model for comparing cherrybark oak plantation management scenarios. Results from a year-old bottomland oak species comparison trial in western Kentucky. Two-year survival of planted seedlings as influenced by planting stock, planting method, fertilization or competition control.
Evaluation of Root Force TM container seedlings of four oak species for bottomland forest restoration in southern Indiana: 5-year results. Enhancing oak growth and development on Louisiana wetlands reserve program easements.
First-year evaluation of two northern red oak Quercus rubra L. Pile, Lauren S. Proceedings of the symposium on the productivity of northern forests following biomass harvesting. Fire and vegetation dynamics in the Cross Timbers forests of south-central North America.
Restoring fire suppressed Texas pak woodlands to historic conditions using prescribed fire. An overview of prescribed fire in Arkansas and Oklahoma over the last 40 years. Abstracts of the proceedings of the 4th fire in eastern oak forests conference. Extended abstracts of the proceedings of the 4th fire in eastern oak forests conference.
Fire chronology and windstorm effects on persistence of a disjunct oak-shortleaf pine community. Songbirds in managed and non-managed savannas and woodlands in the central hardwoods region. Fire-adapted natural communities of the Ozark Highlands at the time of European settlement and now. Frequent fire protects shortleaf pine Pinus echinata from introgression by loblolly pine P. Managers and scientists unite to adapt a shelterwood prescription to shift stand dynamics for competitive oak reproduction.
Terrestrial biological carbon sequestration: science for enhancement and implementation. Post, Wilfred M. Inverse estimation of Vc max , leaf area index, and the Ball-Berry parameter from carbon and energy fluxes. Predicting vegetation phenology in response to climate change using bioclimatic indices in Iraq. Thousand cankers disease is widespread on black walnut, Juglans nigra, in the western United States. Tisserat, N. Becker, Dennis R. Woody biomass utilization trends, barriers, and strategies: Perspectives of U.
Forest Service managers. The role of vegetation in mitigating air quality impacts from traffic emissions. Baldauf, R. Preserving the Family Woods: tools to help guide transfer to the next generation of landowners. Your Family Land: Legacy or Memory? Arthrornyces and Blastosporella , two new genera of conidia-producing lyophylloid agarics Agaricales, Basidiornycota from the neotropics. Baroni, Timothy J. Gould, W. Vose, J. One park, many experiences: socially-explicit improvements to recreation management frameworks with application to Taiwan.
The effects of sudden oak death and wildfire on forest composition and dynamics in the Big Sur Ecoregion of Coastal California. Stevens, Kristian A. Maintenance and enhancement of long-term multiple socioeconomic benefits to meet the needs of societies. Research and Development wildland fire and fuels accomplishments and outcomes. Out of the mists comes knowledge of little-known endemics, as researchers band together to predict a no-analog future.
Fragmentation alters ecological gradients and headwater fish assemblage composition relative to land use in a dendritic river system. Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K. Pauli, Benjamin P. A technique to screen American beech for resistance to the beech scale insect Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.
Standard guide for developing a cost-effective risk mitigation plan for new and existing constructed facilities. Aukema, J. Estimating canopy bulk density and canopy base height for conifer stands in the interior Western United States using the Forest Vegetation Simulator Fire and Fuels Extension.
Validation and development of postfire mortality models for upland forest tree species in the southeastern United States. Dymond, Salli F. Invasion by native tree species prevents biotic homogenization in novel forests of Puerto Rico. Lightweight panel study Perceptions and usage by North American wood products manufacturers.
Pallet recovery, repair and remanufacturing in a changing industry: to Beech bark disease: the oldest "new" threat to American beech in the United States. A geomorphic perspective on things to think about before starting a gravel augmentation project. Phylogenetic placement of an unusual coral mushroom challenges the classic hypothesis of strict coevolution in the Apterostigma pilosum group ant-fungus mutualism.
Dentinger, Bryn T. Sustaining wildlife with recreation on public lands: a synthesis of research findings, management practices, and research needs. Miller, Anna B. A research strategy for enhancing sustainable recreation and tourism on public lands. The Eastside Screens large-tree harvest limit: review of science relevant to forest planning 25 years later. Hessburg, Paul F. Fettig, C. Reproductive parameters of the fisher Pekania pennanti in the southern Sierra Nevada, California.
Cradle-to-gate life cycle impacts of redwood forest resource harvesting in northern California. Saving streams at their source: managing for amphibian diversity in headwater forests. Effectiveness of bifenthrin Onyx and carbaryl Sevin SL for protecting individual, high-value conifers from bark beetle attack Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae in the Western United States.
Fettig, Christopher J. Contrasting drivers and trends of coniferous and deciduous tree growth in interior Alaska. Cahoon, Sean M. Meeting global policy commitments: carbon sequestration and southern pine forests. Johnsen, Kurt H. Susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis Coleoptera: Buprestidae to Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Effects of cutting date, outdoor storage conditions, and splitting on survival of Agrilus planipennis Coleoptera: Buprestidae in firewood logs. Forest cover from Landsat Thematic Mapper data for use in the Catahoula anger District geographic information system.
A framework for developing urban forest ecosystem services and goods indicators. Identification of a barrier height threshold where brook trout population genetic diversity, differentiation, and relatedness are affected. Glycine mineralization in situ closely correlates with soil carbon availability across six North American forest ecosystems. The first genetic linkage map for Fraxinus pennsylvanica and syntenic relationships with four related species.
Spatial and temporal trends of deer harvest and deer-vehicle accidents in Ohio. Regional climate response collaboratives: Multi-institutional support for climate resilience. Averyt, Kristen; Derner, Justin D. Butler, Brett J. Meeting global policy commitments carbon sequestration and southern pine forests. Klingenberg, Daniel J. Variable flushing mechanisms and landscape structure control stream DOC export during snowmelt in a set of nested catchments. Establishing even-age northern hardwood regeneration by the shelterwood method--a preliminary guide.
Response of slash pine to bedding and phosphorus application in southeastern flatwoods. Inhibition of Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum by Juglans species bark extracts. Associations among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and seedlings are predicted to change with tree successional status. Second workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak planting, Mississippi State University, February , abstracts.
Biomass flow in western forests: Simulating the effects of fuel reduction and presettlement restoration treatments. Overcoming barriers to knowledge integration for urban resilience: A knowledge systems analysis of two-flood prone communities in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Ramsey, Molly M. Phylogeography of an island endemic: the Puerto Rican freshwater crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons. Phytophthora ramorum does not cause physiologically significant systemic injury to California bay laurel, its primary reservoir host.
The fluctuating resource hypothesis explains invasibility, but not exotic advantage following disturbance. Pearson, Dean E. Response of arboreal rodents to increased availability of nest substrates in young forests. Bringing fire back. The changing regimes of the Appalachian mixed-oak forest.
Sampling scales define occupancy and underlying occupancy-abundance relationships in animals. Transgenic virus resistance in crop-wild Cucurbita pepo does not prevent vertical transmission of zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Simmons, H. Subcontinental impacts of an invasive tree disease on forest structure and dynamics. Influence of temperature and humidity on the viability of Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum Conidia.
Evaluation of molecular markers for Phytophthora ramorum detection and identification: Testing for specificity using a standardized library of isolates. Martin, F. Monitoring the establishment and flight phenology of parasitoids of emerald ash borer Coleoptera: Buprestidae in Michigan by using sentinel eggs and larvae. Seed availability constrains plant species sorting along a soil fertility gradient. Foster, Bryan L. Tropical herbivorous phasmids, but not litter snails, alter decomposition rates by modifying litter bacteria.
Response of the soil microbial community and soil nutrient bioavailability to biomass harvesting and reserve tree retention in northern Minnesota aspen-dominated forests. Lewandowski, Tera E. Ellison, Aaron M. Migration patterns of the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum on the West Coast of the United States of America. Restoration of plant cover on campsites in subalpine forests: Sawtooth Wilderness, Idaho. Standardizing the nomenclature for clonal lineages of the sudden oak death pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum.
Quantifying horizontal transmission of Nosema lymantriae , a microsporidian pathogen of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar Lep. Survival, dispersal, and potential soil-mediated suppression of Phytophthora ramorum in a California redwood-tanoak forest. Cronn, Richard; Knaus, Brian J. Development of Alnus tenuifolia stands on an Alaskan floodplain: patterns of recruitment, disease, and succession. Changing climate, changing forests: The impacts of climate change on forests of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada.
Disturbance-mediated competition between perennial plants along a resource supply gradient. Blahna, Dale J. Igniting research for outdoor recreation: linking science, policy, and action. Chapter Using social media for research and monitoring the changing landscape of public land use. Chapter 3: Recreation opportunities and human connections on public lands: Constraints that limit recreation participation.
Chapter 7: Technology and outdoor recreation in the dawning of the age of constant and instant digital connectivity. Chapter 2: Agency capacity for effective outdoor recreation and tourism management. Cerveny, Lee K. Chapter Organizational change and operationalizing sustainable recreation—lessons learned from two natural resource governance cases.
Selin, Steven; Cerveny, Lee K. Chapter How can collaboration contribute to sustainable recreation management? Chapter Outdoor recreation and environmental stewardship: The sustainable symbiosis. Chapter National forest planning: Applying new technologies and approaches to improve public participation and decisionmaking.
Chapter Integrating social, ecological, and economic factors in sustainable recreation planning and decisionmaking. Chapter A systems thinking approach for thinking and reflecting on sustainable recreation on public lands in an era of complexity, uncertainty, and change. Lichen elemental indicators for air pollution in Eastern United States forests; a pilot study in the upper Midwest.
A cost-effective field measurement protocol to support lidar-assisted carbon monitoring programs—implementing a prototype design at six different sites in the United States. Seeing the forest below the trees: occurrences of shrubs in the Pacific Northwest.
Metagonimoides oregonensis Heterophyidae:Digenea Infection in pleurocerid snails and Desmognathus quadramaculatus salamander larvae in southern Appalachian streams. Belden, Lisa K. Using high-resolution short-term location data to describe territoriality in Pacific martens. Photo guide for appraising downed woody fuels in Montana forests: lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir cover types.
Spatial variability of wildland fuel characteristics in northern Rocky Mountain ecosystems. An annual pattern of native embolism in upper branches of four tall conifer species. Detecting small changes in populations at landscape scales: a bioacoustic site-occupancy framework. Wood, Connor M. Species diversity of polyporoid and corticioid fungi in northern hardwood forests with differing management histories. Limber pine Pinus flexilis James genetic map constructed by exome-seq provides insight into the evolution of disease resistance and a genomic resource for genomics-based breeding.
Effects of drought on forests and rangelands in the United States: translating science into management responses. Methyl bromide fumigation to eliminate thousand cankers disease causal agents from black walnut. Lineage, temperature, and host species have interacting effects on lesion development in Phytophthora ramorum.
White-nose syndrome dramatically altered the summer bat assemblage in a temperate southern Appalachian forest. Techno-economic and environmental assessments of storing woodchips and pellets for bioenergy applications. Veneer log production and receipts in the Northeast, - a periodic assessment of regional timber output.
A historical and comparative review of 50 years of root data collection in Puerto Rico. What are we hiding behind the visual buffer strip? Petrie, M. Widmann, Richard H. Fraedrich, Stephen W. Distinct genecological patterns in seedlings of Norway spruce and silver fir from a mountainous landscape.
Clair, John Bradley; Heiri, Caroline. First report of the Armillaria root-disease pathogen, Armillaria gallica, associated with several woody hosts in three states of Mexico. Klopfenstein, N. Diversity of small mammals in the Sierra Nevada: Filtering by natural selection or by anthropogenic activities?
Storfer, A. Crustal thickness variations across the Blue Ridge mountains, southern Appalachians: an alternative procedure for migrating wide-angle reflection data. Ecological indicators of forest degradation after forest fire and clear-cutting in the Siberian larch Larix sibirica stand of Mongolia.
Experimental evidence that mycorrhizal nitrogen strategies affect soil carbon. Bottom-up processes influence the demography and life-cycle phenology of Hawaiian bird communities. Non-random species loss in a forest herbaceous layer following nitrogen addition. Diet and food availability of the Virginia northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus : implications for dispersal in a fragmented forest. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity and natural enemies promote coexistence of tropical tree species.
Bat wing biometrics: using collagen—elastin bundles in bat wings as a unique individual identifier. Discrimination and assessment of black walnut Juglans nigra L. Ammonia oxidizer populations vary with nitrogen cycling across a tropical montane mean annual temperature gradient. Pierre, S. Indicator 1. Population levels of selected representative forest-associated species to describe genetic diversity. Number and geographic distribution of forest-associated species at risk of losing genetic variation and locally adapted genotypes.
The Demonstration of Ecosystem Management Options DEMO Study, a long-term experiment in variable-retention harvests: rationale, experimental and sampling designs, treatment implementation, response variables, and data accessibility. Environmental effects of postfire logging: an updated literature review and annotated bibliography.
User manual for the aquatic trophic productivity model: a river food web simulation model for management and research. Synthesis of science to inform land management within the Northwest Forest Plan area: executive summary. Spies, Thomas A. Whole-island carbon stocks in the tropical Pacific: Implications for mangrove conservation and upland restoration.
Private forest owners and property tax incentive programs in the United States: A national review and analysis of ecosystem services promoted, landowner participation, forestland area enrolled, and magnitude of tax benefits provided. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola , on sassafras Sassafras albidum in Alabama. Plant litter chemistry and mycorrhizal roots promote a nitrogen feedback in a temperate forest.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation has similar benefits to fertilization for Thuja occidentalis L. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of northern red oak Quercus rubra L. The changing global carbon cycle: linking local plant-soil carbon dynamics to global consequences. Chapin, F. Effects of native vegetation on invasion success of Chinese tallow in a floating marsh ecosystem. The potential for a backward-bending supply curve of non-timber forest products: An empirical case study of wild American ginseng production.
Effect of urea additive on the thermal decomposition kinetics of flame retardant greige cotton nonwoven fabric. Spore dispersal of a resupinate ectomycorrhizal fungus, Tomentella sublilacina , via soil food webs. Height growth modeling using second order differential equations and the importance of intial height growth. Leary, Rolfe A. Frill treatment with 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D effective for killing northern hardwoods.
First report of Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium nonalfalfae on tree-of-heaven Ailanthus altissima in Ohio. Productivity and profitability potential for non-native Eucalyptus plantings in the southern USA. Stanturf, John A. A comparative study of cellulose nanofibrils disintegrated via multiple processing approaches. Dynamic N -occupancy models: estimating demographic rates and local abundance from detection-nondetection data.
Rossman, Sam; Yackulic, Charles B. Feeding modes in stream salmonid population models: Is drift feeding the whole story? A survey of hymenopteran parasitoids of forest macrolepidoptera in the Central Appalachians. Tying up loose threads: revised taxonomy and phylogeny of an avian-dispersed Neotropical rhizomorph-forming fungus.
Koch, Rachel A. Aronson, Myla F. Sweitzer, Richard A. Microstructure change in wood cell wall fracture from mechanical pretreatment and its influence on enzymatic hydrolysis. Influence of regeneration method and tissue source on the frequency of somatic variation in Populus to infection by Septoria musiva.
Effects of individual, community and landscape drivers on the dynamics of a wildland forest epidemic. Haas, Sarah E. Do rising temperatures always increase forest productivity? Interacting effects of temperature, precipitation, cloudiness and soil texture on tree species growth and competition. Gustafson, Eric J. Vegetation response to a short interval between high-severity wildfires in a mixed-evergreen forest. Donato, Daniel C. The public debate about roads on the National Forests : an analysis of the new media : The attractiveness of manuka oil and ethanol, alone and in combination, to xyleborus glabratus Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and other curculionidae.
Eager, T. Change detection with heterogeneous data using ecoregional stratification, statistical summaries and a land allocation algorithm. Population trends of the redbay ambrosia beetle Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae : does utilization of small diameter redbay trees allow populations to persist?
Between-year breeding dispersal by White-headed Woodpeckers: A caution about using color bands to estimate survival. Biomass and nutrient mass of Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus bioenergy plantations. Global survey of anthropogenic neighborhood threats to conservation of grass-shrub and forest vegetation. Negative plant-soil feedbacks increase with plant abundance, and are unchanged by competition. Evaluating the ecological impacts of salvage logging: can natural and anthropogenic disturbances promote coexistence?
Do mites phoretic on elm bark beetles contribute to the transmission of Dutch elm disease? Another account of interspecific aggression involving a Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus. Photo guide for appraising downed woody fuels in Montana forests: Interior ponderosa pine, ponderosa pine - larch - Douglas-fir, larch - Douglas-fir, and interior Douglas-fir cover types.
Rangewide analysis of fungal associations in the fully mycoheterotrophic Corallorhiza striata complex Orchidaceae reveals extreme specificity on ectomycorrhizal Tomentella Thelephoraceae across North America. Projections of suitable habitat for rare species under global warming scenarios. Agroforestry: Enhancing resiliency in U. Jaworski, Delilah; Kline, Jeffrey D. Chapter Integrating ecological and social science to inform land management in the area of the northwest forest plan.
Chapter Environmental justice, low-income and minority populations, and forest management in the northwest forest plan area. Marcot, Bruce G. Chapter 2: Climate, disturbance, and vulnerability to vegetation change in the Northwest Forest Plan Area. Chapter 7: The aquatic conservation strategy of the northwest forest plan—A review of the relevant science after 23 years.
Reeves, Gordon H. Volume 2—Synthesis of science to inform land management within the Northwest Forest Plan area. Chapter 3: Old growth, disturbance, forest succession, and management in the area of the Northwest Forest Plan. Volume 1—Synthesis of science to inform land management within the Northwest Forest Plan area. Chapter 9: Understanding our changing public values, resource uses, and engagement processes and practices.
Volume 3—Synthesis of science to inform land management within the Northwest Forest Plan area. Synthesis of science to inform land management within the Northwest Forest Plan area.
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